Thursday, January 31, 2019

Blue Crab/ Siri Azul (Torres, Brazil, Jan 2019) & the World Food Club






Torres, Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, Jan 2019 (for more pictures see here);
Colin Tudge talk;
Colin Tudge interview;
A Message from the Future with Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (The Intercept);
Greta Thunberg & other young activists (Dazed);

Preamble (how different things could & should be): 


"Ces Indians répartis de part de d'autre de la frontière entre l'Équateur et le Pérou ne se distinguent guère des autres tribus de l'ensemble jivaro, auquel ils se rattachent par la langue et la culture, lorsqu'ils disent que la plupart des plantes et des animaux possèdent une âme (wakan) similaire à celle des humains, une faculté qui les range parmi les 'personnes' (aents) en ce qu'elle leur assure la conscience réflexive et l'intentionnalité, qu'elle les rend capables d'éprouver des émotions et leur permet d'échanger des messages avec leurs pairs comme avec les membres d'autres espèces..."
"La forme visible des animaux n'est en effet qu'un déguisement. Lorsqu'ils regagnent leurs demeures, c'est pour se dépouiller de leur apparence, revêtir parures de plumes et ornements cérémoniels, et redevenir de manière ostensible les 'gens' qu'ils n'avaient pas cessé d'être lorsqu'ils ondoyaient dans les rivières et fourrageaient dans la forêt."
"Si les animaux diffèrent des hommes, c'est donc uniquement par l'apparence, une simple illusion des sens puisque les enveloppes corporelles distinctives qu'ils arborent d'ordinaire ne sont que des déguisements destinés à tromper les Indiens. Lorsqu'ils visitent ces derniers en rêve, les animaux se révèlent tels qu'ils sont en réalité... il faut éviter le gâchis, tuer proprement et sans souffrances inutiles, traiter ave dignité les os et la dépouille, ne pas céder aux tartarinades ni même évoquer trop clairement le sort réservé aux proies."
"Comme le confiait le chamane Ivaluardjuk à Rasmussen, 'le plus grand péril de l'existence vient du fait que la nourriture des hommes est tout entière faites d'âmes.'"
Philippe Descola
"In einem solchen Zustande empfand ich einmal die Nähe einer Kuhheerde durch Wiederkehr milderer, menschenfreundlicherer Gedanken, noch bevor ich sie sah: Das hat Wärme in sich..."
Nietzsche

"In the past, most scientific research was carried out by amateurs... Charles Darwin, for example, never held any institutional post; he worked independently at his home in Kent, studying barnacles, writing, keeping pigeons, and doing experiments in the garden with his son Francis... There are now only a handful of independent scientists, the best known being James Lovelock, the leading proponent of the Gaia hypothesis... And although amateur naturalists and freelance inventors still exist, they have been marginalized."
Rupert Sheldrake
"... le krach systémique de Wall Street illustrant au mieux, non seulement le Rabelais d'une science sans conscience qui n'est jamais que ruine de l'âme, mais surtout celui d'une science économique désormais sans confiance et qui n'est plus que al ruine du marché unique..."
Paul Virilio (Ler Grand Accélérateur)
"I think having land and not ruining it is the most beautiful art that anybody could ever want to own."
"There should be supermarkets that sell things and supermarkets that buy things back, and until that equalizes, there'll be more waste than should be... People should be able to sell their old cans, their old chicken bones, their old shampoo bottles, their old magazines. We have to get more organized."
The Philosophy of Andy Warhol
"In der That, ich habe bis zu meinen reifsten Jahren immer nur schlecht gegessen, — moralisch ausgedrückt 'unpersönlich', 'selbstlos', 'altruistisch', zum Heil der Köche und andrer Mitchristen."
Nietzsche
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About the blue crabs in the pictures (&/or how things really are):


Ordinary people simply kill these animals as they come grabbed to their fishing nets. It doesn't look right to me. They kill them allot, during the Summer, while dragging their nets along the beach. Perhaps boats do even worse and we just don't see. 
"No Brasil, de modo geral, C. sapidus não constitui espécie-alvo de grandes pescarias, sendo basicamente explorada pela pesca artesanal no interior dos estuários, principalmente nas regiões sudeste e sul, bem como nas regiões costeiras como fauna acompanhante da pesca de arrasto de camarões. Geralmente os indivíduos capturados são devolvidos, já mortos, ao mar. Em alguns locais a espécie declinou consideravelmente, mas não existem dados suficientes para estimar o impacto das capturas na população de C. sapidus. Coleta de informações de captura e pesquisas voltadas a biologia pesqueira da espécie bem como o conhecimento do nível de degradação das áreas onde habita são necessárias para a alteração da condição de Dados Insuficientes (DD)," Avaliação do risco de extinção dos crustáceos no Brasil: 2010-2014 (ICMBIO);
"Nos Estados Unidos há só para o estudo e controle desta pescaria, uma série de comissões, leis, conferências, revistas científicas, livros, etc. Isto mostra a importância atribuída a esse recurso pesqueiro e a garantia da sua preservação," Siri azul do Atlântico americano: lixo ou tesouro do mar?

See also:
https://www.bluecrab.info
And also:
Environmental Issue (Brazil);

***One of the best quality things people living in cities such as Porto Alegre (capital of Rio Grande do Sul, South of Brazil) still have access to, besides alternative movie theatres, are the agroecological markets—relatively big ones, such as the "Feira Agroecológica do Bom Fim" (taking place Saturday mornings at the Av. José Bonifácio) and small ones, such as the "Feira Agroecológica da Travessa dos Lanceiros Negros" (Tuesday mornings). There you can buy a variety of organic fruits and vegetables direct from small producers for very affordable prices. The beach of Torres has an agroecological market as well, "Ecotorres" (Av. Gen. Osório, 158).
***Paradiset/Johannes Cullbert #BoycottBrazilianFood
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"Tereza Cristina não parece ser a ministra da Agricultura, mas do Envenenamento dos Consumidores. Nos primeiros 50 dias do novo governo, 54 novos agrotóxicos foram aprovados. O Ministério da Agricultura deu sinal verde para que novos fabricantes possam comercializá-los, e que novas combinações químicas entre eles sejam permitidas. Por causa de sua alta toxicidade, alguns desses produtos são proibidos no exterior. Mas isso parece ser secundário, desde que o agronegócio esteja bombando."
"Em outros países do mundo, procuram-se meios de plantar alimentos de forma mais saudável. Na Alemanha, até 2030, os orgânicos deverão ser plantados sobre 20% das terras agrícolas. Ao mesmo tempo, o mercado de alimentos orgânicos registra crescimento constante ano por ano – só em 2018, foram 5,5%." 
"Não é o caso do Brasil. A Fundação Oswaldo Cruz analisa 30 alimentos regularmente. Em algumas amostras, é possível encontrar até 15 agrotóxicos diferentes. E o que o legislador faz? Nada. No Congresso circula o chamado 'pacote do veneno', que almeja a aprovação de mais agrotóxicos."
"A catástrofe ambiental no Rio Grande do Sul passou quase despercebida pela opinião pública. A Associação dos Apicultores Gaúchos contabiliza a perda de 6 mil colmeias, inviabilizando a entrega de 150 toneladas de mel. Em 80% das análises das abelhas mortas, foi constatado algum tipo de agrotóxico presente. Nem a ministra da Agricultura, Tereza Cristina, e muito menos o ministro do Meio Ambiente, Ricardo Salles, se pronunciaram sobre o caso." 
"Com frequência, os inseticidas chamados de neonicotinoides são responsáveis pela morte das abelhas. Na Europa, os neonicotinoides são proibidos. No Brasil, não. A indústria agrícola é contra. Mais um produto licenciado recentemente é o Sulfoxaflor, igualmente conhecido por envenenar abelhas."
- "O Projeto de Mefistóteles: o novo governo está caminhando para transformar o meio ambiente brasileiro num inferno," Philipp Lichterbeck (Deutsche Welle/Brazil);

Other scandalous news:
'Undercover footage at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology (LPT) near Hamburg, published by Cruelty Free International and Soko Tierschutz, shows technicians with metal prongs grabbing macaque monkeys by the neck. The monkeys are restrained by braces during testing. The footage also shows primates being handled “violently” by technicians: in one incident a monkey has its head smacked against a door frame...'
'Some of the monkeys appeared to be kept alone in metal cages measuring less than a cubic metre and are seen spinning in circles, indicating high levels of distress. They were reportedly forced to stand for long periods. Dogs are pictured laying in what seemed to be their own blood and faeces, with one beagle in a cage appearing to be bleeding. Staff also appeared to mishandle cats.'
Barbaric tests on monkeys lead to calls for closure of German lab (The Guardian);
'Although recent reporting on deforestation has focused heavily on the Amazon, the fact is that the other ancient forests of South America – and elsewhere in the world – are disappearing too. These trees are probably falling to make way for a crop sometimes known as the “wonder bean” or even the “Cinderella bean”: soya. As the plane carries on, the huge soya fields that now patchwork this area unfold beneath us, small strips of forest still clinging on around their margins.'
'The discovery of a stable, cheap source of protein might have been a miracle for farmers – 75% of the world’s soya and maize is now fed to farm animals – but this monoculture is spreading over huge expanses of the Americas, and wiping out forests, wilderness and species as it goes. Soya is one of the four main culprits for deforestation (along with beef, wood and palm oil) and biodiversity loss as farmers clear land to grow this profitable oilseed.'
'... deforestation rate in Argentina is one of the highest in the world. According to Nasa’s Earth Observatory, 20% of the Gran Chaco’s forest, 55,000 square miles – an area larger than England – was lost between 1985 and 2016... The UK and EU don’t grow much soya and so the EU now imports about 15m tonnes of un-ground soya beans, and about 19m tonnes of crushed meal, while in 2017 the UK alone imported 2m tonnes of oilcake. The biggest importer by far however is China, the one-time home of soy. In 2017 China imported a breathtaking 96m tonnes of soya beans. For the exporters, America, Brazil and Argentina, soya is big business.'
- Rise of the 'wonder bean': from deforestation to your plate (The Guardian);
"In 2009, Walmart, Nike and other global companies vowed to stop buying beef and leather from Brazilian companies operating in the Amazon. They were responding to pressure from the environmental group Greenpeace, which had determined that cattle ranching there had become the largest driver of deforestation in the world, with an average of one acre of the Amazon cleared every eight seconds for grazing."
"... a decade later, the Amazon is in even graver danger, with 17% of its forests already gone and some scientists warning that losing as little as 3% more could begin turning it to savanna because the ecosystem will produce too little rainfall to sustain itself."
"Brazil produces more beef than any other country except the United States and exports more than anywhere else, sending 20% of its production to Hong Kong, China, the European Union and several smaller buyers.  The Brazilian company JBS, the world’s largest meatpacker with more than $50 billion in annual revenue, counts Walmart and Costco as major clients."
- Cows are killing the Amazon. Pledges from Walmart and Nike didn’t help save it (Los Angeles Times);
"Hotspots of antibiotic-resistant superbugs are springing up in farms around the world, the direct result of our overconsumption of meat, with potentially disastrous consequences for human health, a study has found."
"The scientists, reporting on their work in the peer review journal Science, said there was a “window of opportunity” to limit the rise of resistant bacteria “by encouraging a transition to sustainable animal farming practices” around the world, particularly in the countries highlighted."
"The rise of superbugs that are untreatable by even the strongest antibiotics is one of the greatest threats the world faces, according to the UK’s outgoing chief medical officer, Sally Davies, who warned of an “apocalyptic” threat and the end of modern medicine."
- "Superbugs hotspots emerging in farms across globe" (The Guardian);
"Esta era a mensagem que a procuradora da República em Altamira Thais Santi tentava passar aos jornalistas. Os incêndios são graves e devem ser denunciados e combatidos, mas é necessário compreender também que um rio está morrendo. Morrendo. “É ecocídio, e é genocídio”, ela afirma. A procuradora não exagera. Os fatos são eloquentes, investigados e mensurados pelos melhores cientistas da área do Brasil, e também por documentos oficiais. Na história recente da Amazônia, a grande causadora e reprodutora de violências na região do Médio Xingu, onde está a cidade de Altamira, foi e segue sendo a Usina Hidrelétrica de Belo Monte."
"... É também nesta região que, nos últimos anos, outra gigante, a mineradora canadense Belo Sun, pressiona a população local e assedia políticos de Belém para obter autorização para explorar aquela que seria a maior mina de ouro a céu aberto do Brasil – e também o sepultamento oficial da Volta Grande embaixo de toneladas de rejeitos tóxicos."
"Since President Jair Bolsonaro took office in January, Brazil has permitted sales of a record 290 pesticides, up 27% over the same period last year, and a bill in Congress would relax standards even further... About 40% of Brazil’s pesticides are “highly or extremely toxic,” according to Greenpeace, and 32% aren’t allowed in the European Union. Meanwhile, approvals are being expedited without the government hiring enough people to evaluate them, said Marina Lacorte, a coordinator at Greenpeace Brazil... The fertile nation is awash in chemicals. Brazil’s pesticide use increased 770% from 1990 to 2016, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations." 
"Desses, 16 são classificados pela Anvisa como extremamente ou altamente tóxicos e 11 estão associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas como câncer, malformação fetal, disfunções hormonais e reprodutivas. Entre os locais com contaminação múltipla estão as capitais São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, Manaus, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Campo Grande, Cuiabá, Florianópolis e Palmas...."
"Os números revelam que a contaminação da água está aumentando a passos largos e constantes. Em 2014, 75% dos testes detectaram agrotóxicos. Subiu para 84% em 2015 e foi para 88% em 2016, chegando a 92% em 2017...."
"Do total de 27 pesticidas na água dos brasileiros, 21 estão proibidos na União Europeia devido aos riscos que oferecem à saúde e ao meio ambiente..."
"... somando todos os limites permitidos para cada um dos agrotóxicos monitorados, a mistura de substâncias na nossa água pode chegar a 1.353 microgramas por litro sem soar nenhum alarme. O valor equivale a 2.706 vezes o limite europeu..." 
Coquetel perigoso Levantamento aponta que 1 a cada 4 cidades brasileiras tem água contaminada por 27 tipos de agrotóxicos (Ana Aranha & Luana Rocha, UOL Notícias);

Also In Places like Brittany:
"“When I was 16, I used to bring a boat here with my uncle,” Ollivro said. “In those days, it was all about natural beauty and you didn’t see seaweed piled up. It’s a shame this place has come to be associated with death.”"
"For decades, potentially lethal green algae have amassed in shallow bays on Brittany’s beautiful north-western coast. Environmentalists say the blossoming of unusually large amounts of green algae are linked to nitrates in fertilisers and waste from the region’s intensive pig, poultry and dairy farming flowing into the river system and entering the sea. When the algae decompose, pockets of toxic gas (hyrogen sulfide) get trapped under its crust — potentially fatal to humans if they step on it."
"This summer, six Brittany beaches were closed because of a mass of dangerous seaweed. The bay of Saint-Brieuc was the focus, with bulldozers piling so much algae into dumper trucks on the beach that an inland treatment centre, where seaweed is dried out and disposed of, briefly closed due to an unbearable stench. The centre blamed the foul odour on the method used to collect the algae, which had mixed in mud and sand. Local residents complained the smell was so bad it woke them up at night."
"Jean-René Auffray, 50, was fit and preparing for a long-distance race when he set out on an afternoon jog from his home near the beach in Hillion. His dog returned alone and his wife and children went out to search for him. The area where he was found had already seen over 30 wild boar die in sludge five years before, with a likely link to rotting seaweed."
 - It can kill you in seconds': the deadly algae on Brittany's beaches (Angelique Chrisafis/The Guardian)
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the World Food Club


"The world's food supply chain and hence the world at large are being seriously screwed up by the powers-that-be: governments, corporates, and the experts and intellectuals who advise and serve them (scientists, economists, lawyers, and professional bureaucrats known as MBAs)," Colin Tudge's The World Food Club.
"The aim of the WORLD FOOD CLUB is to replace the present food supply chain with something far better, controlled and answerable to people at large. The new food chain will be designed expressly to promote human wellbeing and cultural diversity, hugely to improve animal welfare, and to sustain and create landscapes that remain rich, diverse, and beautiful,Colin Tudge's The World Food Club.

Existing Initiatives:
- Soil Association;
- Slow Food International;
- Compassion in World Farming;
- Friends of the Earth;
- Fairtrade International;
- Forum for the Future;
- The Pari Center;
- Oxfordshire Community Land Trust;
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On the Ecological Apocalipse and how to avoid it: 


"For Isra, when it comes to discussing the environment, it’s crucial to talk about environmental racism – i.e., environmental and climate change issues that specifically affect black and brown communities. “There’s a pipeline being built in my state (Minnesota) and it’s going straight through indigenous treaty lands and sacred wild rice beds,” she explains. “This pipeline will destroy their water and their sacred wild rice and also just ruin their land. Some places are more privileged than others.” More than anything, we should make sure people “recognise their privilege in the movement”."
"As far as US Youth Climate Strike is concerned, Isra says, “we try and avoid things like sit-ins or a lot of marches, only because we deal with so many minors – we don’t want any of them to get arrested – especially with youth of colour. We try and focus on really safe forms of activism so everybody can participate.”"
"Everybody gets there at their own pace. It took me some time – it probably takes everybody some time. And whether or not you get media coverage or you get a great response it doesn’t mean what you’re doing is wrong. You should know what’s best for you and what you believe in, and nobody should be able to tell you any different.”"
"“It is a lot to handle, and it’s a full-time job,” says Isra, who is a high school student, juggling her school work along with her activism. “You have to make sure you balance time and that you get your priorities right.” Self-care is a must. “There are so many things that need to be tackled, but also you come first – make sure that you are OK enough to partake in that activism,”" "How to fight for climate action, according to Isra Hirsi" (Niellah Arboine/Dazed, 05/13/2019);
'The political class, as anyone who has followed its progress over the past three years can surely now see, is chaotic, unwilling and, in isolation, strategically incapable of addressing even short-term crises, let alone a vast existential predicament.'
'Even when broadcasters cover these issues, they carefully avoid any mention of power, talking about environmental collapse as if it is driven by mysterious, passive forces, and proposing microscopic fixes for vast structural problems. The BBC’s Blue Planet Live series exemplified this tendency.'
'Our system – characterised by perpetual economic growth on a planet that is not growing – will inevitably implode.'
'... for a peaceful mass movement to succeed, a maximum of 3.5% of the population needs to mobilise.'
'When a committed and vocal 3.5% unites behind the demand for a new system, the social avalanche that follows becomes irresistible,' "Only rebellion will prevent an ecological apocalypse" (George Monbiot, The Guardian, 04/15/2019);
'“We have shown that we are strong, we are determined,” she said. “I have never – I’ve been a police officer for 36 years – I have never known an operation, a single operation, in which over 700 people have been arrested.''Max Wedderburn, a 13-year-old from Milton Keynes, addressed crowds at the bridge and received cheers and applause. “We are getting bigger, we are getting stronger, we are gathering momentum. Together we can change the future,” he said.'
'Speaking afterwards, he said he became inspired to fight against climate change after learning about it from his mother. He explained: “My lifelong dream is to become a zoologist but I feel there is no point if half of the animals are all dead by the time I reach that goal.”'
'Around 20 activists, most of them aged under 17, had staged a brief demonstration on roads near Heathrow Airport on Friday morning and were arrested.
“One thing that is unusual about this demonstration is the willingness of those participating to be arrested and also their lack of resistance to the arrests,” said a spokesperson,' "Extinction Rebellion: More than 750 protesters arrested as climate change activists block London roads for sixth day" (Independent, 04/21/2019);

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

the most auspicious tetrahedron &/or two pairs of charming mathematicians



Niels Henrik Abel
Évariste Galois
(pictures taken from the Internet)
What did they do?
Well, conjure the most remarkable consequences of an old ghost (Vieta's logistica speciosa): "solutions" for the general algebraic equations of degree higher than four.

- Bernhard Riemann
- Kingdon Clifford
(picture taken from the Internet)
What did they do?
Riemann simply solved the following riddle (and by doing so challenged classical and common sense understanding about space, which remains pretty much our understanding till nowadays): what is real space?
Clifford understood that.
"Riemann's allusions were ignored by the majority of contemporary mathematicians and physicists. His investigations were deemed too speculative and theoretical to bear any relevance to physical space, the space of experience. The only one who allied himself firmly to Riemann was the translator fo his works into English, William Kingdon Clifford... already in 1870, Clifford saw in Riemann's conception of space the possibility for a fusion of geometry with physics... Clifford conceived matter and its motion as a manifestation of varying curvature [of space]... For Aristotle, space was an accident of substance; for Clifford... substance is an accident of space... These speculations aroused great opposition among academic philosophers..." (Max Jammer, Concepts of Space, Dover 1993);
"Riemann came to a deep philosophical conviction that a complete mathematical theory must be established, which would take the elementary laws governing points and transform them to the great generality of the plenum (by which he meant continuously-filled space)... the Riemann Integral calculus is defined as an infinite sum of integrals of step functions. Such infinite sums became the starting points for the study of infinite by Georg Cantor" (Amir D. Aczel, The Mystery of the Aleph, WSP 2000);

See also:
- actual infinite falling (against Carlo Rovelli's pseudo-problem);
- the dogma of semantic uniformity & Python Gored Naturalism;
- the odd transformation of Der Herr Warum (Gödel & Resnais);
- the only three types of ingenuity (with Cantor & Dedekind);
- self-help books (with Rupert Sheldrake);
- what is REAL space? what is REAL number?
- Timothy Leary in the 1990s;
- 5G?! Get real...
- list of charming scientists/engineers;
- pick a soul (ass you wish);
- view from Berthe Trépat's apartment;
- list des déclencheurs musicaux;
- Dark Consciousness (with Yasuo Yuasa);
- The Doors of Perception (with Huxley);
- Structuralism, Poststructuralism (with Julia Kristeva);
- List des figures du chaos primordial (Deleuze);
- Brazilian Perspectivism (Viveiros de Castro vs. Haroldo de Campos);
- Piano Playing (with Kochevitsky);
- L'Affirmation de l'âne (review of Smolin/Unger's The Singular Universe);
And also:
- Dogen with Hagakure;
- L'articulation (Maurice Blanchot);
- L'intelligence des fleurs;
- Spooky Blue;
- Interactive while indifferent—Kinds & Phantasmagoria circa 1900;

Sunday, January 20, 2019

what is REAL space? what is REAL number? & do fields fluctuate?




Somnambule 1 (by A/Z, for more see here);

"But those infinities are perhaps not inevitable..."
Ian Hacking
"... ein vollkommnes Ausser-sich-sein mit dem distinktesten Bewusstsein einer Unzahl feiner Schauder und Überrieselungen bis in die Fusszehen; eine Glückstiefe, in der das Schmerzlichste und Düsterste nicht als Gegensatz wirkt, sondern als bedingt, als herausgefordert, sondern als eine nothwendige Farbe innerhalb eines solchen Lichtüberflusses; ein Instinkt rhythmischer Verhältnisse, der weite Räume von Formen überspannt..."
"... das Süßeste, Leichtfertigste und Furchtbarste strömt aus Einem Born mit unsterblicher Sicherheit hervor. Man weiß bis dahin nicht, was Höhe, was Tiefe ist; man weiß noch weniger, was Wahrheit ist."
Nietzsche

BOTH depend on arrays of matter, on arrays of aggregates, that is, ultimately, on arrays of forces, on informational differences, the manifold turnings of uncountable autonomous spectral Möbius strips, Mallarmé's coup de dés:

real space:


"In mathematical space, and even in physical space, absolute measurement seemed to elude us, since in view of the continuity of space it appeared impossible to proceed with an enumeration of points. But in the case of the retina, its surface is no longer homogeneous; it possesses a heterogeneous structure like all tissues, probably a discrete one forming a pattern. In all such cases a definite metrics suggests itself naturally, just as on a net, in the absence of a ruler, we would compare lengths instinctively by counting the holes separating our points..."
"But... our intuitive visual appreciations yield results which differ from results obtained with rods, not merely accidentally as a result of the imperfection of human observation, but systematically... A coin that measures out as round will appear flattened to the eye. This phenomenon is illustrated by the well-known optical illusion wherein two rigid rulers which coincide when placed side by side, appear of unequal magnitude when placed horizontally and vertically, respectively. It is a well-known fact that the vertical appears to be longer than the horizontal. For this reason, vertical stripes on a cloth cause the wearer to appear thinner and taller..."
"... the mere fact that we have agreed to accept such discrepancies as due to optical illusions rather than to untrustworthiness of our rods proves that we deliberately reject our intuitive judgment of shape and size in favour of more sophisticated rules of measurement. In other words, we have abandoned direct intuition for physical determinations, hence for convenient but conventional standards..."
"... it is the physical behaviour of material bodies and light rays which is in the final analysis responsible for our natural belief in absolute shape..."
"... the geometry the physicist credits to space is contingent on his acceptance of a number of physical laws; and by varying these laws in an appropriate way he could still account for observed facts and credit corresponding types of geometry to space... the real space of physicists [is] the space to which he is led when he seeks to co-ordinate the phenomena of the physical world with the maximum of simplicity... the various material bodies we encounter are by no means identical in nature; some are light, others are heavy, and their chemical and molecular constitutions are certainly not the same. And yet in every case, whether our rods be of wood, of stone, or of steel, we obtain the same Euclidean results provided we operate as far as possible under the same conditions of temperature and pressure... Then again, there are the dynamical properties of space, which we cannot afford to neglect. If physical space were amorphous, all paths through space should be equivalent, and yet centrifugal force and forces of inertia manifest themselves for certain paths and motions and not for others... real space appears to be permeated by an invisible field, the Metrical Field, endowing it with a metrics or structure."
"Riemann did not attribute this structure of space to the presence of some invisible medium, the ether, possessing a structure of its own... He felt that the metrical field of space should be compared to a magnetic or an electric field pervading space... Riemann searched for the physical cause of the metrical field... he found it in the matter of the universe... a redistribution of the star matter in the universe, altering as it would the lay of the metrical field, would produce deformations in the shape of a given body and variations in the paths of light rays... Any non-homogeneous distribution of matter would then entail a variable structure or geometry for space from place to place."
"... Einstein had been led to recognise that space of itself was not fundamental. The fundamental continuum whose non-Euclideanism was to be investigated was one of Space-Time, a four-dimensional amalgamation of space and time possessing a four-dimensional metrical field governed by the matter distribution."
[And why Space-Time? Ultimately because of the very strange peculiar behaviour of light rays, which do not vary in speed when going from one frame of reference to another (this speed is not affected by the movement of bodies in the frames, while it would be expected that the rays suffered some kind of friction). "... the importance of Einstein definition lies... in its enabling us to co-ordinate time reckonings in various Galilean frames in relative motion. So long as we restrict our attention to space and time computation in our frame, we may, as before, appeal to vibrating atoms for the measurement of congruent time-intervals and to rigid rods for the purpose of measuring space. It is when we seek to correlate space and time measurements as between various Galilean frames in relative motion that astonishing consequences follow."]
- A. D'Abro, The Evolution of Scientific Thought: from Newton to Einstein (Dover, 1950);
***Also: "The victory over the concept of absolute space or over that of the inertial system became possible only because the concept of the material object was gradually replaced as the fundamental concept of physics by that of the field. Under the influence of the ideas of Faraday and Maxwell the notion developed that the whole of physical reality could perhaps be represented as a field whose components depend on four space-time parameters. If the laws of this field are in general covariant, that is, are not dependent on a particular choice of coordinate system, then the introduction of an independent (absolute) space is no longer necessary," Albert Einstein's foreword to Max Jammer's Concepts of Space (Dover 1993).

real number:


"... if two sequences are asymptotic to a third, they are asymptotic to each other, and, furthermore, if one converges to a certain rational number as a limit, the same is true of the other... a great number of sequences may, in spite of their difference in form, represent the same number... an evanescent geometrical sequence will always converge towards a rational limit, and... any rational number can be regarded as the limit of some rational geometrical series..." 
"... and so Cantor extended the idea of convergence, which hitherto applied only to those sequences which were asymptotic to some rational repeating sequence, by identifying the two terms self-asymptotic and convergent... he extended the idea of limit by regarding the self-asymptotic sequence as generating a new type of mathematical being which he identified with what had long before him been called real number."
"Inasmuch as any real number can be expressed by infinite convergent rational sequences, the rational domain, reinforced by the concepts of convergence and limit, will suffice to found arithmetic, and through arithmetic the theory of functions, which is the cornerstone of modern mathematics... this capital fact is of just as great importance in applied mathematics. Since any rational sequence can be represented as an infinite decimal series, all computations may be systematized."
"We do not confine ourselves any more to using infinity as a figure of speech, or as shorthand for the statement that no matter how great a number there is one greater: the act of becoming invokes the infinite as the generating principle for any number; any number is now regarded as the ultra-ultimate step of an infinite process; the concept of infinity has been woven into the very fabric of our generalized number concept."
"... wether we use a ruler or a weighing balance, a pressure gauge or a thermometer, a compass or a voltmeter, we are always measuring what appears to us to be a continuum, and we are measuring it by means of... the aggregate of numbers at our disposal; we are tacitly admitting an axiom which plays within this continuum the role which the Dedekind-Cantor axiom plays for the straight line."
"... while Galileo dodged the issue by declaring that the attributes of equal, greater, and less are not applicable to infinite, but only to finite quantities, Cantor takes the issue as a point of departure for his theory of aggregates. And Dedekind goes even further: to him it is characteristic of all infinite collections that they possess parts which may be matched with the whole... The reader will remember Liouville's discovery of transcendentals. This existence theorem of Liouville was re-established by Cantor as a sort of by-product of his theorem that the continuum cannot be denumerated... the algebraic and the transcendental... the power a of the aggregate of natural numbers... the power c of the continuum... And here too, in this domain of real numbers, the part may have the power of the whole... a segment of a line, no matter how short, has the same power as the line indefinitely extended, an area no matter how small has the power of the infinite space of three dimensions..."
- Tobias Dantzig, Number: the language of science (Plume, 2007);
***Also: "[Galileo] argues that by bending a line segment into the shape of a circle one has 'reduced to actuality that infinite number of parts into which, while it was straight, were contained in it only potentially," Amir D. Aczel, The Mystery of the Aleph (WSP, 2000); "[in Galileo's On Two New Sciences] Salviati sets up a one-to-one correspondence between all the integers and all the squares of integers and says 'we must conclude that there are as many squares as there are numbers'... Galileo found that infinite sets are very different from their finite counterparts: an infinite set can be shown to have 'the same number of elements' as a proper subset of itself," Aczel, The Mystery; "Riemann came to a deep philosophical conviction that a complete mathematical theory must be established, which would take the elementary laws governing points and transform them to the great generality of the plenum (by which he meant continuously-filled space)... the Riemann Integral calculus is defined as an infinite sum of integrals of step functions. Such infinite sums became the starting points for the study of infinite by Georg Cantor," Aczel, The Mystery; "most numbers on the number line are  transcendental... Choosing a rational number, or an algebraic one—even though there are infinitely many of them—[on the real line] is just too unlikely because of the preponderance of the transcendental numbers," Aczel, The Mystery; "As far as infinity goes, dimension does not matter. Any continuous space, whether a line or a plane or a n-dimensional space, has as many points as the continuum. All these spaces are uncountable," Aczel, The Mystery

real space & real number:


*****Cabalistic, hermetic and neoplatonic (& other related peculiar) notions about space & number:
"... the Lord is the dwelling-place of His world but His world is not His dwelling-place..."
"... adding the squares of the numbers corresponding to the letters of the holy name one gets the sum of the numbers that correspond to the letters of the word 'place'..."
"... God is the center of everything, whose circumference is nowhere to be found [Fludd/Trismegistus]."
"... Deus creaturus mundos contraxit praesentiam suam [Luria]."
"Although Newton does not explicitly draw the conclusion that centrifugal forces determine absolute motion which in its turn determines absolute space, it is clear that this was his intention."
"... by existing always and everywhere, [God] constitutes duration and space [Newton]."
"... when the immediate cause of change is in the body, that body is truly in motion; and then the situation of other bodies, with respect to it, will be changed consequently, though the cause of that change be not in them [Leibniz]."
"Kant finds the clue to the riddle of left and right in transcendental idealism. The mathematician sees behind it the combinatorial fact of the distinction of even and odd permutations [Hermann Weyl]."
"Space, as a pure form of intuition, leads, according to Helmholtz, to a single conclusion: that all objects of the external world must necessarily be endowed with spatial extension. The geometric character of this extension, however, is in his view purely a matter of experience."
"Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us, that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces, but that such forces are produced by its relative rotation with respect to the mass of the earth and the other celestial bodies [Mach]."
"If the ether as an absolute system could be demonstrated, the notion of absolute space could be saved. Indeed, one of the most important experiments to this end, the Michelson-Morley experiment, was in 1904 interpreted by Lorentz in this sense."
"Gauss seems to have recognized the logical possibility of a non-Euclidean geometry even before Lobachevski and Bolyai came out with their sensational discoveries."
"Gauss great contribution to differential geometry rests in his proof that the curvature of a surface, which is determined as a reciprocal product of the two principal radii, can be expressed in terms of intrinsic properties of the surface."
"A continuous n-dimensional manifold is called a Riemannian space, if there is given in it a fundamental tensor."
"... the concept of length or distance is foreign to the amorphous continuous manifold and has to be put in or impressed from without."
"Riemann selected the simplest hypothesis, namely, that ds is the square root of a homogeneous function of the increments of the second degree. He was fully aware of the arbitrariness in his determination of the length of the line element and emphasized the possibility of other expressions, as, for instance, the fourth power of ds as a biquadratic form of the coordinate differentials. The problem is of course connected with the question of the validity of the Pythagorean theorem in the vicinity of a point."
"... being essentially a geometry of infinitely near points, Riemann's theory of space conforms to the Leibnizian idea of the continuity principle, according to which all laws are to be formulated as field laws..."
"Riemann's geometry can be compared with Faraday's field interpretation of electrical phenomena... as a strictly homogeneous magnetic or electrostatic field is never encountered in reality, so a homogeneous metrical field of space is only an idealization... as the the physical structure of the magnetic or electrostatic field depends on  the distribution of magnetic poles or electric charges, so the metrical structure of space is determined by the distribution of matter..." 
"Es muss also entweder das dem Raume zu Grunde liegende Wirkliche eine discrete Mannigfaltigkeit bilden, oder der Grund der Massverhältnisse ausserhalb, in darauf wirkenden bindenden Kräften, gesucht werden [Riemann]."
"The only one who allied himself firmly to Riemann's was the translator of his works into English, William Kingdon Clifford.... already in 1870 Clifford saw in Riemann's conception of space the possibility for a fusion of geometry with physics."
"Clifford conceived matter and its motion as a manifestation of the varying curvature [of space]."
"... this property of being curved or distorted is continually  being passed on from one portion of space to another after the manner of a wave... this variation of the curvature of space is what really happens in that phenomenon which we call the motion of matter, whether ponderable or etherial... in the physical world nothing else takes place [Clifford]."
"For Aristotle, space was an accident of substance; for Clifford, so to speak, substance is an accident of space."
"Gravitation, as understood by the theory of general relativity, is to be comprehended in the geometric structure of space-time."
"... the idea of a fourth dimension was cordially welcomed in spiritual circles. Henry More had already applied this notions for his spiritualistic conception of spissitudo essentialis... J. K. F. Zöllner..."
"Cantor's famous one-to-one correspondence between the points of a line and the points of a plane... showed deficiencies of the traditional definition of dimensionality."
"The distance between two particles [in microphysics] is determined by the minimal number of particles necessary to form a chain of coincidences between the given particles."
"A profound epistemological analysis of certain quantum-mechanical principles seems to suggest that the traditional conceptions of space and time are perhaps not the most suitable frame for the description of microphysical processes... In his discussion of electron transitions between stationary states within the atom, Niels Bohr already called such processes 'transcending the frame of space and time.'"
"Les données de nos perceptions nous conduisent à construire un cadre de l'espace et du temps où toutes nos observations peuvent se localiser. Mais le progrès de la Physique quantique nous amènent à penser que notre cadre de l'espace et du temps [as classically or ordinarily understood] n'est pas adéquat à la véritable description des réalités de l'échelle microscopique" [Louis de Broglie].
"... it has been suggested by Riemann and Clifford, and later ingeniously corroborated by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, that the metric of space structure is a function of the distribution of matter and energy."
"Mach's Principle, as originally announced, claimed the intrinsic dependence of every local inertial system, that is, a local coordinate system in which Newton's laws hold, upon the distribution of mass in the universe."
"Should it become evident that Mach's Program cannot be satisfied within the general theory of relativity perhaps merely because the energy-momentum tensor which caracterizes matter presupposes already metrical magnitudes: in other words, because matter cannot be understood apart from knowledge of space-time, then matter as the source of the field will become part of the field. On the basis of such a unified field theoretic conception as proposed for example by J. Callaway, the field itself would constitute the ultimate, and in this sense absolute, datum of physical reality" [***this statement shows that the dichotomy referred in the book's last chapter between "relational" and "absolutist"  conceptions of space (space doesn't exists vs. space does absolutely exist) is actually a pseudo-problem, with no interest whatsoever outside the monopoly of academic philosophical priesthood; that is, what is important is the concept of field, and that there is some probabilistic distribution over it, independently of the ontological status of the much weaker classical and ordinary concepts of matter and space].
"During the past few years some attempts have even been made, as by Takao Tati, to formulate the fundamental laws of interactions between elementary particles without using the concept of space-time, which thus becomes a statistical notion, like 'temperature' in statistical mechanics..."
"As Salecker and Wigner rightly remarked, the concepts of rigid reference frames or of (practically) rigid rods as conventionally defined and taken as the basis for the construction of space-time metric and for the physical interpretation of the Lorentz covariance cannot be meaningfully applied in the quantal world of elementary particles." 
- Max Jammer's Concepts of Space (Dover 1993);
"The term 'field' was first introduced into science by Michael Faraday in the 1840s, in connection with electricity and magnetism. His key insight was that attention should be focused on the space around a source of energy, rather than on the source of energy itself. In the nineteenth century the field concept was confined to electromagnetism and light. It was extended to gravitation by Einstein in his general theory of relativity in the 1920s. According to Einstein, the entire universe is contained within the universal gravitational field, curved in the vicinity of matter. Moreover, through the development of quantum physics, fields are now thought to underlie all atomic and subatomic structures... Fields are inherently holistic. They cannot be sliced up into bits, or reduced to some kind of atomistic unit; rather, fundamental particles are now believed to arise from fields," Rupert Sheldrake's Seven Experiments that could change the world (Riverhead 1995);
"The uncertainty principle of Werner Heisenberg suggests... that the vacuum is not empty. Accord­ing to the principle, uncertainty about the energy of a system increases as it is examined on progressively shorter time scales. Particles may violate the law of the conservation of energy for unobservably brief instants; in effect, they may materialize from nothing­ness. In QED [Quantum Electrodynamics] the vacuum is seen as a complicated and seething medium in which pairs of charged "virtual" parti­cles, particularly electrons and posi­trons, have a fleeting existence. These ephemeral vacuum fluctuations are polarizable just as are the molecules of a gas or a liquid. Accordingly QED predicts that in a vacuum too electric charge will be screened and effectively reduced at large distances," Chris Quigg's Elementary Particles and Forces (Scientific American, vol. 252, n. 4, 1985, pp. 84-95);
"For if in the von Neumann formulation one does seek to determine the cause of the ‘free choice’ within the representation of the physical brain of the chooser, one finds that one is systematically blocked from determining the cause of the choice by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which asserts that the locations and velocities of, say, the calcium ions, are simultaneously unknowable to the precision needed to determine what the choice will be. Thus, one is not only faced with merely a practical unknowability of the causal origin of the ‘free choices’, but with an unknowability in principle that stems from the uncertainty principle itself, which lies at the base of quantum mechanics," Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp and Mario Beauregard's "Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind–brain interaction," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (2005).
"Bohm and Hiley (1984) generalized the Penrose twistor theory to a Clifford algebra, paving the way for a description which allows continuous space-time to emerge from a deeper pre-space they call an implicate order. Bohm (1986) further proposed that the “ex-plicate” space and time that we consciously experience is likewise projected from its enfoldment in deeper implicate orders. In neural terms what becomes interesting here is Pribram’s (1991) holographic theory of neural memory, for the hologram (where information about the whole is stored in each part) is a paradigmatic example of an implicate order (of course, similar ideas have been explored in connection with artificial neural networks)," Paavo Pylkkanen's "Cognition, the implicate order and rainforest realism", Futura, 31, 2012/2, pp. 74-83.
"But that, that’s a very important point, because most people think that Bohm, and maybe myself are determinists and we’re not... start with the structure of process idea. Now, in that structure of process idea I have built into it the idea of an implicate order. What we can do from the implicate order? We can project from it into an explicative order. And in the explicate order you can construct trajectories. So, you’re actually constructing your position and your momentum and your trajectories from this deeper order. You’re not assuming it is there a priori and then generalizing the order... Is the holomovement something which is local or nonlocal? My answer would be, it’s neither" Basil Hiley interview.
"Piaget describes how, when children are asked to draw a map of the local area around their home and are asked to position the playground, school, ice cream shop, dentist etc., they place the ice cream shop and the playground close to home, but will place the dentist and the school far from home, regardless of their actual physical distance from their home. The children are using a neighbourhood relation which has to do with pleasure and not physical distance. Thus by generalising the notion of neighbourhood, it is possible to have many different orders on the same set of points depending on what is taken to be the relevant criterion for the notion of neighbourhood in a particular context. Thus our description becomes context dependent and not absolute. This is very important both for thought and quantum theory... The importance of context in quantum theory has only recently begun to emerge, although it was always implicit in Bohr’s notion of wholeness. However in the Bohm interpretation context dependence becomes crucial," Basil J. Hiley's "Mind and matter: aspects of the implicate order described through algebra" (in K. H. Pribram's and J. King's Learning as Self-Organisation, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996, pp. 569-86);
"Bohm notes that if we try to analyze a thought into smaller and smaller elements we eventually come to a point where further analysis seems impossible. Analogously, some of the essential properties of a quantum system (e.g. whether it is a wave or a particle) depend on its indivisible and incompletely controllable connections with surrounding objects. This suggests that both thought and quantum phenomena are characteristic of a radical type of wholeness, unanalyzability and context-dependence," Paavo Pylkkänen's "Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?" (in H. Atmanspacher's, C. Bergomi's, T. Filk's, K. Kitto's, Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014);
"... in the 1950s one reaction against the failure of field theory in strong-interaction physics was to turn away from intractable Feynman diagrams towards the transition probabilities themselves—perhaps at this level of analysis some sense could be made of the strong interaction... the entire array of probabilities covering transitions between all conceivable initial and final states was known as Scattering- or S-matrix," Andrew Pickering's Constructing Quarks (Chicago, 1984);
"... the two tendencies, intuitionist and platonist, are both necessary; they complement each other, and it would be doing oneself violence to renounce one or the other... the idea of the continuum is a geometrical idea which analysis expresses in terms of arithmetic... the concept of number appears in arithmetic. It is of intuitive origin, but then the idea of the totality of numbers is superimposed... in geometry the platonistic idea of space is primordial," Paul Bernays, as quoted by Ian Hacking in Why there is Philosophy of Mathematics at all (Cambridge, 2014);
"Dedekind was deeply impressed by the characterization of simply infinite sets as those that can be mapped into some of their subsets, and thought the characterization of number might begin there," Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics;
"Benacerraf observed that numbers cannot be identical to any one of their analyses in set theory, for those analyses are not identical. At best the integers can be the shared structure of all sound analyses," Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics;
"Paul Schützenberger holds that integers exist only in physics... He calls this a Pythagorean thesis. What impresses him is that, for example, in crystallography there are certain intrinsic whole number relationships. That's where integers live," Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics;

do fields fluctuate?


This question was proposed by Rupert Sheldrake. Actually, his question was about fundamental physical constants (such as the Gravitational constant, the velocity of light, and Planck's constant). Do they fluctuate? But since these constants govern fields, the point is basically the same:
"There has been little consideration of the third possibility, which is the one I am exploring here, namely the possibility that constants may fluctuate, within limits, around average values which themselves remain fairly constant. The idea of changeless laws and constants is the last survivor from the era of classical physics in which a regular and (in principle) totally predictable mathematical order was supposed to prevail at all times and in all places... What I propose is a series of measurements of the universal gravitational constant to be made at regular intervals—say monthly—at several different laboratories all around the world, using the best available methods. Then, over a period of years, these measurements would be compared. If there were underlying fluctuations in the value of G, for whatever reason, these should show up at the various locations. In other words, the 'errors' might show a correlation..." (Sheldrake, Seven Experiments).
"If nature is constructed of knowables, then the acts of knowing with which we are familiar should be special cases of a pervasive set of similar acts: the world should somehow be constructed of such acts, and of a substrate that is suited to be acted upon by such acts, but that supports, as a matter of principle, only what can become known by other acts. Acts of knowing become, then, the primitives of nature, along with the substrate upon which they act" (Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp and Mario Beauregard, "Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind–brain interaction," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society).

corollary &/or FICTION is REAL:


*******And here you will find a paper I presented originally at the Joint Annual Conference of the Society for European Philosophy and the Forum for European Philosophy Annual Conference ("Philosophy After Nature", Utrecht University, 2014). It addresses problems in the foundation of statistic classifications in relation to the topological notion of continuum and concepts coming from post-structuralist thinking and literary studies: Jakobson's notion of shifter in particular, and Blanchot's reading of Henry James' The Turn of the Screw. As I argue, to think about reality, literary notions such as shifter are much more rich and interesting than classical philosophical notions such as Kripke's rigid designator.
The paper has been accepted as a submission by several journals, but has never been really published, on account of its interdisciplinary and supposedly at the same time "flippant" and "demanding" style (the journals include Journal of Historical Fictions, Studies in the Novel, University of Toronto Quarterly, Mosaic, Victorian Review, OLR, Configurations, The Journal of Popular Culture, Explorations: a journal of language and literature, among others):

More on non-locality (and complementarity): 
"For D'Espagnat, it is exactly if we consider seriously and realistically certain results of physics that we have to open the two complementary perspectives. D'Espagnat welcomed these complementary perspectives grounding himself on the many violations of CHSH-Bell inequalities obtained experimentally since the 1980s," Alessandro Zir, Luso-Brazilian Encounters of the Sixteenth-Century: A Styles of Thinking Approach (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 2011, p. 66).
What makes this book difficult to understand and accept (it received just a few although favourable reviews), is an insight that classical dichotomies such as subjective/objetive, fictional/real, should be understood as the mere result of displacements of boundaries in an overall indeterminate context (borrowing from Joyce, you could call this context a chaosmos) which is always somewhat "excessive." This context is neither literary nor scientific, strictly speaking. Or to say it in a positive way: the reality we inhabit is both literary and scientific (which doesn't mean these two perspectives should be simply collapsed), it encompasses non-fiction and fiction (Mallarmé's conception of the book, for instance), and fiction is real (in a deadly serious way, not as some fanciful proposition). This is a key idea in deconstruction (and deconstruction goes back to centuries before Derrida, as he himself willingly admitted). I found it in the first encounters between Europeans and the land, fauna, flora and people of Brazil. But very unfortunately scholars have emphasized only the more superficial political implications of deconstruction while forgetting its "metaphysical" dimension (and both things have to go together). Post-colonial studies suffers conspicuously from this reductionist and much impoverished approach. 

More on David Bohm, Niels Bohr & Wolfgang Pauli: 
"During this period which I found somewhat depressing as far as physics was concerned, we got a student, Donald Schumacher, was quite brilliant. He came from America, but he was not very stable mentally. He took a great interest in Niels Bohr... This fellow Schumacher had some insight which made it much more clear what Bohr was about. What he said could be summed up by saying that the form of the experimental conditions and the meaning or content of the results are a whole, not further analyzable. This question of the observer and the observed, which is fascinated by quantum mechanics, is very hard to put consistently without confusion... it would have been a very repellant philosophy to me had I understood that in the early days. To say we have nothing but the appearance and we have a mathematical algorithm which enables us to compute the probability of a certain phenomenon. Looking at it more carefully, Bohr did not deny there is reality, but he denied you could say anything about it. Now, Pauli did not do that. He said quite a bit about it. He said that the mind is involved, the mind of the observer is involved in that reality. I would not have gone on with Pauli that way, but there were a great many other points about Pauli I probably would have gone on... Pauli is pretty elusive too..." David Bohm's conversation with Maurice Wilkins;
"Bohr argued that we should not regard the coupling between entangled pairs as arising from a mechanical force. Rather he talks of 'an influence on the very conditions which define the possible types of prediction regarding the future development of the system'. Bohr felt this was a key point because he italicised the phrase in his original paper and repeated it word for word in his Discussions with Einstein. In a mechanical explanation all 'influences' must be mechanical, but our proposals suggest a more 'organic' picture where information is playing a dynamic and objective role, namely, it is active. Thus once again rather than contradicting Bohr, I argue that the Bohm interpretation actually offers some clarification of his position!" Basil Hiley's "From the Heisenberg Picture to Bohm: a New Perspective on Active Information and its relation to Shannon Information" (in A. Khrennikov, Proc. Conf. Quantum Theory: reconsideration of foundations, Sweden, Växjö University Press, pp. 141-162,  2002).

See also:

And also:

Monday, January 14, 2019

Environmental Issue (Brazil): A new harbour in Torres (RS)?! Who benefits? What is the logic behind it?



Praia Paraiso/Fev 2019 (Torres is a municipality constituted by several small beaches; this is exactly the place where they intend to build the harbour);
Praia Paraiso/ Sept 2015 (the south of Brazil has a very unstable weather; in Torres there is even the recent record of a massive hurricane-like cylone);
(more A/Z photography, see here);

#ForaSalles
#BoycottBrazilianFood
#ExtinctionRebellion
#GretaThunberg
**************************************************************

[para português, por favor, veja aqui]
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According to a report published last January 9 (2019), in the newspaper Zero Hora the idea was proposed by the civil engineer Fernando Carrion and senator Luis Carlos Heinze, of the political party PP (not to be confused with PT).
Who is senator Heinze?
According, for instance, to another report recently published in Yahoo News (October 23, 2018), here are the senator's credentials:
'Linked to the rural sector of Rio Grande do Sul (a state that stands out for its agricultural production) [actually, Rio Grande do Sul is nowadays an indebted state having problems to pay even its public employees, which was, but this a very long time ago, a state that stood out for its agricultural production], Heinze works on renegotiating [big] farmers' debt and is [as much as Jair Bolsonaro] critical of the demarcation of new indigenous areas. In 2014, during a public hearing in Vicente Dutra [a small town of Rio Grande do Sul], Heinze declared that quilombolas [in Brazilian hinterland, traditional communities of African people founded originally by escaped slaves during the shameful period of Brazilian legal slavery], homosexuals and Indians were "people of the worst kind, worth of nothing," and suggested the recruitment of private security by the rural producers to maintain the possession of their lands. He later told the press that his statements (videotaped on social networks) were made in the middle of a heated debate concerning the conflicts between indigenous people and farmers... Also in 2014, Heinze voted against a Constitutional Amendment that stipulated the expropriation of lands from landowners who were caught submitting their workers to a regime analogous to slavery...'
Heize was born in 1950, the engineer Fernando Carrion in 1942 (according to information on a website of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation).
Although Heinze usually presents himself as defending perspectives opposed to the previous PT (Worker's Party) governments—especially that of Dilma Rousseff, to the impeachment of whom he contributed—the affinity between the logic behind the harbour's project and the logic behind the macroeconomic actions of the previous governments is conspicuous.
The growth of the country is thought, above all, in terms of megalomaniac projects, very much dependent on strategies totally indifferent (if not deleterious) to the natural environment, and within a completely outdated 19th-century matrix of economical development based almost exclusively in large-scale extractive production and the exportation of commodities. 

***According to a report in the Jornal Nacional (April 24, 2018), Luis Carlos Heinze's party (the PP) "is one of the most investigated parties in Car-Wash scandal." Another politician of PP directly involved in the project for the construction of the harbour is Ovídio Deitos, a businessman of the building sector who is also the president of the PP party in the city of Caxias do Sul. Other businessmen of this city seem also to be involved. One should note that Caxias do Sul was indeed a very important industrial city, with big metalworking factors that are now in decline. Those businessmen didn't adapt well to the new globalized economy. The harbour might represent to them a supposedly survival alternative at the expense of the local population and the environment.
The proposal for the "new" harbour (which in fact remounts to the 19th century) looks pretty much like the old disguised as the new, which will, as always, benefit mostly if not only a lazy, backward state bureaucracy and half a dozen oligarchs from the private sector. Foreign investment would come from where? China, Napolis?!
The sea coast of Torres is important, for instance, to seals, sea lions and right whales. There are THREE protected areas that could be endangered: Parque Estadual de ItapevaRefúgio da Vida Silvestre Ilha dos Lobos, and Parque Tupancy.

***As specialists know, the coast of Rio Grande do Sul lacks the granitic shores and protected bays of the coast of Santa Catarina (the next Brazilian state up to the North). This implies a series of risks, such as erosion, in the construction of this type of port in Rio Grande do Sul.
Moreover, as it is well-known, in Brazil, the maintenance of already existing and basic infrastructure, such as roads, has a huge deficit. In the midst of this scenario, what could be the point of building an entire new port from scratch?! And this in a country that was incapable of preventing the occurrence of a disaster in the scale and magnitude of the one occasioned by mining companies in Mariana?! And within only three years, also the tragedy of Brumadinho (see below), occasioned by the same companies, and killing hundreds of people?
The state of Rio Grande do Sul in particular doesn't stand out anymore for its agricultural production. Since a long time, it has lost ground to other regions. This is a state plagued by chronic economic problems.

In a new report published in the newspaper Correio do Povo (January 31, 2019), Heinze seems to be completely assured that the harbour will be built, mainly to export chicken & [transgenic] soy beans! It seems that much before it became publicly known, the project was being plotted sneakily:

- Bolsonaro Presents a Surreal Defense of His Amazon Policies (The New Yorker);
Bees Are Dropping Dead in Brazil and Sending a Message to Humans (Bloomberg)
Norway to stop €30 million Amazon protection subsidy (France 24)
Deathwatch for the Amazon (The Economist);
- Miners Kill Indigenous Leader in Brazil during Invasion of Protected Land (The New York Times);
Amazon deforestation accelerating towards unrecoverable 'tipping point' (The Guardian)
- Video appears to show rare Brazilian tribe threatened by loggers (CBS News);
- Brazil's Bolsonaro restricts drugs policy council, legalizes agritoxins (Deutsche Welle);
- Deforestation in Brazil has rocketed since Bolsonaro became president (New Scientist);
- Bolsonaro declares 'the Amazon is ours' and calls deforestation data 'lies' (The Guardian);
- Brazil deforestation soars in July, threatening EU trade deal (Reuters);
- Major donor Norway frets over Brazil deforestation (Reuters);
- Amazon rainforest indigenous people in fight for survival (BBC);
- Football pitch of Amazon Forest lost every minute (BBC);
- Bolsonaro plans threaten Amazon, says experts (BBC)
Câmara muda Código Florestal e garante desmate a grandes produtores rurais (Uol);
Com Bolsonaro, liberação de agrotóxicos cresceu 42%... (Uol);
Como Ricardo Salles tem desmontado a agenda verde (Época)
A governança socioambiental do Brasil está sendo desmontada (Globonews)
Ex-ministers blast Bolsonaro for dismantling Brazil's environment protections (Reuters);
Ministro cancela ‘roadshow’ pela Europa após críticas (Gazeta do Povo);
‘Governo está promovendo um desmonte total no Meio Ambiente’ (Estadão)
Servidores escrevem carta acusando Salles (Estadão);
Bolsonaro says Brazil rainforest reserve may be opened (Reuters)
A natural-history museum is under fire for hosting Brazil's new president (The Atlantic)
- US natural history museum gala to honor Brazil's far-right president (The Guardian);
- Ibama exonera servidor que multou Bolsonaro por pesca irregular (Folha de São Paulo);
- O Projeto de Mefistóteles (Deutsche Welle);
- Bispos se opõem a políticos em evento (Estadão);
- Brazil environment minister stirs outrage (The Guardian);
- ‘It smells dirty’: scandals loom over Bolsonaro  (The Guardian);
- Brazil reveals plans to privatize key stretches of Amazon highways (The Guardian);
- Jair Bolsonaro alarms climate activists with pro-business speech (The Guardian);
- Brazil environment chief accused of 'war on NGOs' (The Guardian);
- Gisele Bündchen is a 'bad Brazilian', says Bolsonaro's agriculture minister (The Guardian);
- Jair Bolsonaro launches assault on Amazon rainforest protections (The Guardian);
- BHP Billiton facing £5bn lawsuit from Brazilian victims of dam disaster (The Guardian);
- It was a disaster on an almost inconceivable scale (The Guardian);

Recent news about the tragedy of Brumadinho:

Vale misled public on dangerous dams, prompting Brazil probe (Reuters)
- Rompimento de barragens em Rondônia: o que se sabe até agora (Globonews);
- Ministério Público investiga rompimento de barragens em Rondônia (Folha de São Paulo);
- New Dam Collapse in Brazil (Rondonia) (Associated Press);
- A Brazilian tragedy is a Deepwater horizon moment (The Economist);
- E-mails indicam que Vale soube de problemas em sensores de Brumadinho(G1);
- Dam collapse: the desperate search at Brazil's 'ground zero' (The Guardian);
- 'The river is dying': the vast ecological cost of Brazil's mining disasters (The Guardian);
- Au Brésil, la colère et la crainte d’une nouvelle catastrophe (Le Monde);
- The city is weeping – the aftermath of environmental disaster in Brumadinho (Greenpeace);
- Brazil dam disaster death toll in nears 60, with hundreds still missing (CBS News);
- Brumadinho dam collapse: Hope fades for hundreds missing in Brazil (BBC);
- Brazil dam collapse: 10 bodies found and hundreds missing (The Guardian);
- Hundreds Missing Following Burst Brazil Dam (The New York Times);
- Brazil dam collapse: Bid to rescue hundreds missing (Independent);
- Barragem da Vale se rompe em Brumadinho, em Minas Gerais (Valor);
- Dam Bursts at Vale Mine in Brazil (The Wall Street Journal);


Posts related in this same blog:
- Blue Crab/ Siri Azul (Torres, Brazil, Jan 2019);
- Instead of revolution: démontage;
- Who Wants to Be the World's 5th Largest Economy?
- Banality of Evil in Brazil;
- Brazil after Rousseff's Impeachment;
- A Place Where Everything Is Permitted;
- List of Infamous Brazilian Esquerdofrênicos;
- Humanitarian Rhetoric;
- Land of the Southern Lapwing;
- Torres (Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul);
- Garbage (Plastic Debris, Coast of Rio Grande do Sul);
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Other Environmental Issues Around the World:


'For Isra, when it comes to discussing the environment, it’s crucial to talk about environmental racism – i.e., environmental and climate change issues that specifically affect black and brown communities. “There’s a pipeline being built in my state (Minnesota) and it’s going straight through indigenous treaty lands and sacred wild rice beds,” she explains. “This pipeline will destroy their water and their sacred wild rice and also just ruin their land. Some places are more privileged than others.” More than anything, we should make sure people “recognise their privilege in the movement”.'
'As far as US Youth Climate Strike is concerned, Isra says, “we try and avoid things like sit-ins or a lot of marches, only because we deal with so many minors – we don’t want any of them to get arrested – especially with youth of colour. We try and focus on really safe forms of activism so everybody can participate.”'
'Everybody gets there at their own pace. It took me some time – it probably takes everybody some time. And whether or not you get media coverage or you get a great response it doesn’t mean what you’re doing is wrong. You should know what’s best for you and what you believe in, and nobody should be able to tell you any different.”'
'“It is a lot to handle, and it’s a full-time job,” says Isra, who is a high school student, juggling her school work along with her activism. “You have to make sure you balance time and that you get your priorities right.” Self-care is a must. “There are so many things that need to be tackled, but also you come first – make sure that you are OK enough to partake in that activism,”' "How to fight for climate action, according to Isra Hirsi" (Niellah Arboine/Dazed, 05/13/2019);
'“We have shown that we are strong, we are determined,” she said. “I have never – I’ve been a police officer for 36 years – I have never known an operation, a single operation, in which over 700 people have been arrested.''Max Wedderburn, a 13-year-old from Milton Keynes, addressed crowds at the bridge and received cheers and applause. “We are getting bigger, we are getting stronger, we are gathering momentum. Together we can change the future,” he said.'
'Speaking afterwards, he said he became inspired to fight against climate change after learning about it from his mother. He explained: “My lifelong dream is to become a zoologist but I feel there is no point if half of the animals are all dead by the time I reach that goal.”'
'Around 20 activists, most of them aged under 17, had staged a brief demonstration on roads near Heathrow Airport on Friday morning and were arrested. “One thing that is unusual about this demonstration is the willingness of those participating to be arrested and also their lack of resistance to the arrests,” said a spokesperson,' "Extinction Rebellion: More than 750 protesters arrested as climate change activists block London roads for sixth day" (Independent, 04/21/2019);
'The political class, as anyone who has followed its progress over the past three years can surely now see, is chaotic, unwilling and, in isolation, strategically incapable of addressing even short-term crises, let alone a vast existential predicament.'
'Even when broadcasters cover these issues, they carefully avoid any mention of power, talking about environmental collapse as if it is driven by mysterious, passive forces, and proposing microscopic fixes for vast structural problems. The BBC’s Blue Planet Live series exemplified this tendency.'
'Our system – characterised by perpetual economic growth on a planet that is not growing – will inevitably implode.'
'... for a peaceful mass movement to succeed, a maximum of 3.5% of the population needs to mobilise.'
'When a committed and vocal 3.5% unites behind the demand for a new system, the social avalanche that follows becomes irresistible,' "Only rebellion will prevent an ecological apocalypse" (George Monbiot, The Guardian, 04/15/2019);
'[Balkan] rivers (dubbed the Blue Heart of Europe) are in grave danger of being destroyed by corporate banks wanting to turn them into 3,000 hydro dams across a space the size of Italy. The dams would produce hydro energy: one of the most damaging renewable energy sources on the planet which displaces communities, sends species into extinction, and contributes vastly to climate change. Politically, the move is seen as a form of exploitation, where big foreign banks are taking advantage of a politically unstable region...'
'However, if the recent actions of young activists across the Balkans are anything to go by, destroying the Balkans rivers will be a hard battle to win. It's with this resistance that the region welcomes the new age activism in the Balkans: one lensed by London-based photographer and filmmaker Lewis Khan. Released alongside a short film, Khan travelled to Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia to document those who's lives are intrinsically intertwinned with the rivers of their countries and those making a pledge to save the Blue Heart,' Photos of the Balkan youth fighting to save their environment (Dazed, 08/24/ 2018);