Friday, February 15, 2019

two sentences, the dogma of semantic uniformity & alchemy (or how not to use the method of shouting to close a window)


But those infinities are perhaps not inevitable...
I regard Peirce's hypostatization as name magic,
Wittgenstein's alchemy.
Ian Hacking




Two sentences:
"There are at least three perfect numbers greater than 17."
"There are at least three large cities older than New York."
- from Ian Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics at all (Cambridge, 2014, p. 216-17);

From the dogma of semantic uniformity: 
Both sentences are to be analysed in the same way [also from Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics, p. 217, but Hacking doesn't subscribe to the dogma, he derides it]. 

What is semantic uniformity, standard semantics, denotational semantics? Something that is at odds with a minimal insightful understanding of mathematics. Something that is at odds with a minimal insightful understanding of "natural languages" (and moreover, who said that languages such as English not to speak Portuguese or Polish and even Hungarian are supposed to be natural?!): 
"Nobody who takes Wittgenstein seriously is likely to agree to denotational [or referential] semantics applied to mathematics," Hacking's Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics, p. 218 [and even more important: "As his philosophy evolved, Wittgenstein absolutely rebelled against the uniformity-of- semantics premise"] [aside on Sir Peter Frederick Strawson: "expressions have meanings, while we use some expressions to refer," "Strawson's lesson, that words do not refer, but that speakers use words to refer, seems to have been largely forgotten," Hacking, p. 219];

Brewing the alchemy [but that against semantic uniformity & in favour of Python Gored Naturalism]: 


- what is 17?
- what is New York?
- what is a perfect number?
- what is a large city?
- what are numbers?
- what are cities?
- what is an object?
- what is an entity?
...
→ there are things, real things (although not all things are like that) which we are acquainted with and with which we don't have causal relations [for example, some mathematical stuff &/or phenomena related to non-locality];

"... it is very much a philosopher's view that the only objects there are are physical or material objects, or regions of space-time, or whatever it is that philosophers tell us... to maintain that there aren't any numbers at all because numbers are abstract and not physical objects seems like a demented way to show respect for physics, which of course everyone admires," George Boolos, as quoted by Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics at all.

"We are of divine species," Dedekind as quoted by Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics at all.

***More on the dogma of semantic uniformity, or an expatiation on how to accommodate Python Gored Naturalism with Styles of Scientific Reasoning & Pedestrian Reality: "... when facing this possibility of using the notion of styles of thinking to address so diversified kinds of human undertakings, a special point must be considered. Hacking is not saying that in order to point to truth or falsehood every proposition depends on some kind of style of thinking. He “rejects any uniform all-purpose semantics,” and the “idea that a uniform theory of truth or of meaning should apply across the board to an entire language”... In contrast to sentences that would depend on styles of thinking in order to point to truth or falsehood, Hacking refers to “the boring utterances that crop up in almost any language, and which make radical translation relatively easy.” He refers to “propositions that have a sense for almost all human beings,” and to the “boring domains of ‘observations’ that we share with all people as people.” As an example of such an observation, Hacking suggests the proposition “my skin is warm”... It is possible to sustain that even the most apparently obvious propositions are in any case theory-laden. But the conflation of Hacking’s distinction between more and less sophisticated kinds of propositions would imply a very implausible oversimplification of the way real people use language. Under normal viewing conditions, no one would even think much less utter a proposition such as this table is brown, so obvious people take to be its meaning... Someone could perfectly say, however, this chair is made of Brazilian rosewood, and this would make sense exactly for denoting some kind of expertise. We can understand the first sentence as not depending on any specific style whatsoever, and capable of being understood straightforwardly by most people just by the use of the most elementary discursive and perceptual abilities. The second sentence demands the use of other skills, which do not have to be styles of thinking, but only a slightly more elaborated and technical use of elementary discursive and perceptual abilities. Finally, another sentence could be added in order to extend the comparison: the heat which has the refrangibility of the red rays is occasioned by the light of those rays... This latter sentence demands the use of styles of thinking, because it mentions concepts and types of objects (refrangibility, rays) which would not even exist for people unless they are engaged in certain specific and complex practices by which these concepts and objects are made possible... Ultimately, the problem with saying that everything is theory-laden [this is the core of Hacking's criticism of theory-laden armchair infatuation] is that this position undermines elementary distinctions that constitute human discursive practices—elementary distinctions such as between on the one hand saying, telling, giving an account of something, and on the other hand doing something. A person might just say to another that he or she feels cold and wants the window to be closed, but unless one goes over there and effectively interacts with the window the cold will not merely disappear just by saying close the window no matter how loudly you shout. Perhaps the cold goes away if you are Brian de Palma’s Carrie (1976), but what makes Carrie a Carrie either in movies or in real life (supposing there might be such a thing) is that her thought and talk are imbued with a special sui generis power that is faraway more effective than ordinary people’s thought and talk (and even limbs). You would still need distinctions between thinking, saying, and doing in order to make any sense of Carrie. Differences between things such as mental states, sentences, and external objects are all constitutive and germane to what is here called styles of thinking. Without such elementary distinctions, there is not much to be done with a sentence such as the heat which has the refrangibility of the red rays is occasioned by the light of those rays," Alessandro Zir, Luso-Brazilian Encounters of the Sixteenth-Century (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2011, p. 6-7). 

Getting Wolfgang Pauli & the naive Portuguese, as a plus: 


"Generally speaking scientists are no Carries, though there might have been a few registered but far less noxious cases such as Wolfgang Pauli and the Pauli effect," Alessandro Zir, The Sixteenth-Century Corpus of the Portuguese Colonizers of Brazil (Dalhousie, PhD thesis) [the paragraph of this sentence (which refers also to Ludwik Fleck) unfortunately wasn't incorporated in the book Luso-Brazilian Encounters published in 2011 by FDU Press, which doesn't necessarily rank as a fatal blow to Pauli's scholarship supposing it exists].

"Sérgio Buarque de Holanda remarks that the Portuguese were naive realist people. Their realism would come exactly from their credulity, which would be, as he defines it, “a radical gentleness and passivity in face of reality” that “does not deny Nature infinite possibilities” and the supernatural... If this is correct, the Portuguese would be people capable of recognizing the most strange things in nature, without having to deny all the humdrum propositions that make sense to most people, including people having no sensibility whatsoever to apparitions of monsters and the devil. Besides seeing devils and monsters, the Portuguese would not have any difficulty and do not invoke anything spiritual in order to answer a simple question such as are you cold? They also never use the method of shouting in order to close windows," Alessandro Zir, Luso-Brazilian Encounters of the Sixteenth-Century (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2011, p. 6-7). 










Monday, February 11, 2019

the odd transformation of Der Herr Warum


"Marienbad: the name conjures up images of expensively dressed men and women walking leisurely on wide white paths through expansive manicured gardens, large fountains spewing the mineral-rich waters high into the air... The Gödel family is likely to have stayed at the elegant Baroque-style hotel at the springs, where many famous people have enjoyed their holidays, among them King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, King Otto I of Greece, the Persian Shah Nasredding, Edward VII of Britain, as well as Goethe, Mark Twain, and Sigmund Freud, to name but a few.
As Kurt described the experience many years later, at Marienbad he underwent a transformation. Until the Gödel expected to pursue his interests in the humanities, social studies, and languages, as an educated man of the period. But walking the long corridors of the elegant hotel, strolling through the lavish parks, and soaking in the steaming mineral waters, he was suddenly changed..."
- Amir D. Aczel, The Mystery of the Aleph (WSP 2000).


The Great Abyss Inframince (A/Z 2018)


L'Année Dernière à Marienbad (Alain Resnais/Grillet 1961):





































============================================
More:
"... [as revealed by Stefan Zweig in The World of Yesterday] before World War I, 'A ballet dancer ... was available for any man at any hour in Vienna for two hundred crowns.' [But] to marry someone with such associations could destroy even a well–established career," John W. Dawson, Logical Dilemmas (A. K. Peters, 1997).
"[Morgenstern] was astonished... to learn that Gödel took an interest in ghosts, and he was very dismayed by Gödel’s choice of wife, whom he described as 'a Viennese washerwoman type: garrulous uncultured, [and] strong-willed,'" John Dawson, Logical Dilemmas.
Dawson tells also that Gödel didn't care much for classical music and preferred popular songs. But according to him Gödel was interested in Modern art, television and Kafka, and believed in afterlife.

In The Mystery of Aleph, Amir D. Aczel characterizes Gödel's incompleteness theorem as follows: "there will always be propositions that cannot be proven within the system. Even if a theorem is true, it may be mathematically impossible to prove." This is fair enough, but what Aczel says next is completely wrong: "The human mind, existing within a limited universe, cannot perceive an immense entity that extends beyond the confines of the system." It is completely wrong because what is beyond the system is not bigger but smaller. The outside is inside, and the biggest is the smallest.

Consistency:
"Vladmir Voevodsky worried in a lecture at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study that mathematics as we know it, and as analysed in present-day Foundations of Mathematics, might be inconsistent... that would, perhaps, be liberating... Most philosophers and logicians have jeered at Wittgenstein's asking, what's so great about consistency? Could we not do perfectly good mathematics from an inconsistent basis?" Ian Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics at all? (Cambridge, 2014).

Totality:
"Alain Connes is a Platonist. He thinks there is a totality of arithmetical truths, simply given with the number series itself. Thanks to Gödel we know that totality cannot be characterized by any recursive axiom system adequate to express its own syntax. This is not an argument for Platonism. It is an enrichment of Platonism with a new depth of understanding. As an attitude to reality and to incompleteness, this seems to me to be impeccable. But to avoid misunderstanding... as an argument for the existence of an archaic arithmetical reality, with all its truths intact, it begs the question" Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics.

Consistency & Totality:
"Nothing capable of proof ought to be accepted in science without proof," Richard Dedekind, as quoted in Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics.


See also:
- two sentences, the dogma of semantic uniformity & alchemy;
- the only three types of ingenuity;
self-help books;
the most auspicious tetrahedron;
what is REAL space? what is REAL number?

Sunday, February 10, 2019

the only three types of ingenuity when the parameter is infinity: the limited, the false & the genuine


In his The Mystery of the Aleph, Amir D. Aczel writes: 
"Infinity is an intimidating concept—one where our everyday intuition no longer servers to guide us."

We start by finding our three types by identifying two more general types: the ones who stick to everyday intuition, the ones who dare to face infinity's paradoxes. 

I argue that, in any case, the paradoxes related to infinity are real
Then to stick to everyday intuition is limited or false ingenuity. To face infinity, genuine ingenuity.

The most clear and distinct example of limited ingenuity is to be found in Descartes. He preferred to stick to everyday intuition, but acknowledged that infinity is (and has to be) real.

False ingenuity, which should rather be called bêtise or deliberate ingenuousness is the case of a person who not only sticks to everyday intuition but denies that the paradoxes of infinity can be real and really hates them. There are so many examples of this lamentable case, we fortunately won't need to give any names. You might choose your own favourite member of whatever academic Kroneckian priesthood you happen to be acquainted with, reverenced scientists (several might do the job), inveterate analytic philosophers, hard-nosed economists, bureaucrats &/or famous CEOs.

Very ordinary people don't count because they are all geniuses in a very Warholian peculiar way: by never raising such questions on their own. They definitely don't belong to any of our three categories.

Examples of genuine ingenuity are the followings (under construction list) [it was hard to agree on a truly certified list, so we left a few ghostly holes in the form of question marks]:
- Nicolas of Cusa;
- Giordano Bruno;
- Galileo Galilei (?);
- G. W. Leibniz (?);
- Bernhard Bolzano;
- Bernhard Riemann (?);
- Kingdon Clifford (?);
- Karl Weierstrass;
- Nietzsche (?);
- Sonja Kowalewski (?);
- Gösta Mittag-Leffler (?);
- Richard Dedekind;
- Georg Cantor;
- Raymond Roussel (?);
- Henri Bergson (?);
- Der Herr Warum; 
- Claude Lévi-Strauss (?);
- Pierre Klossowski (?);
- Gilles Deleuze (?);
- Jacques Derrida (?);
- Melanie Klein (?);
- Julia Kristeva (?);

Amir Aczel also provides a parable about the fate of genuine ingenuity by giving an account of Bernhard Bolzano's life:
"In 1805, Bolzano was ordained a priest and nominated to the chair of the department of the philosophy of religion at the University of Prague. Bolzano had wanted the position for several years but had been passed over for promotion by lesser-qualified but better-connected individuals... A mere decade and a half after his installment as chair, Bolzano was summarily fired and stripped of his priestly rank... One B. Frint had written a textbook which he had hoped would be used by Bolzano in his courses. But Bolzano, in his new position, resisted the pressure and did not adopt the book. Frint successfully turned people against the new chair of the philosophy of religion department. The slow but systematic case against Bolzano was built in a series of state papers documenting what officials considered objectionable elements in Bolzano's sermons. The most offensive infraction was Bolzano's preaching peace to the students... When the first attacks on him occurred, Bolzano had the support of the Archbishop of Prague, and this helped him evade any serious consequences" The Mystery of the Aleph (WSP, 2000).










Bernhard Bolzano
picture taken 
from the Internet;











Poincaré & Wittgenstein:



On Wittgenstein and finitism &/or on the difference between the infinite and the huge (see also here): 
"Wittgenstein’s famous matching of finitism and behaviourism, united by their denial of the existence of something (infinite sets and inner states, respectively), in the correct but badly executed attempt to avoid confusion (that between the infinite and a very large quantity, and that between an inner state and a private entity), shows, on this point, the agreement and, at the same time, the distance between the Austrian philosopher’s position and finitism. The denial of the existence of infinite sets is a mistaken way to draw a grammatical distinction which, though it may be opportune, should be done differently: by showing that the grammar of the word “infinite” cannot in the slightest be clarified by taking into account only the picture of something huge, a picture which usually accompanies the use of the word. As Wittgenstien affirms in one of his lectures in 1939: “If one were to justify a finitist position in mathematics, one should say just that in mathematics ‘infinite’ does not mean anything huge. To say ‘There’s nothing infinite’ is in a sense nonsensical and ridiculous. But it does make sense to say we are not talking of anything huge here”... Wittgenstein moves some criticisms against the platonistic interpretation of the true import of Cantor’s proof; nevertheless they do not originate in any way from a presupposed identification of legitimate mathematics with finitist mathematics and, even less so, from the violation, by Cantor’s proof, of the requirements imposed by strict finitism. Once the appropriate clarifications have been made about what, in his opinion, it really demonstrates, Cantor’s proof is more than good enough for Wittgenstein, in spite of the certainly non-finite nature of the “objects” it deals with... proofs which are finitistically (not only strict finitistically) unacceptable are actually accepted by Wittgenstein or are not questioned on the basis of the restriction of admissible mathematical procedures to the finitary ones," Pasquale Frascolla, Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics (Routledge 1994).

Russel & Quine with irony: "[they] were born to be nominalists even if the hard knocks of mathematical and philosophical experience shattered childhood complacency. (Russell actually began as an idealist in the Hegelian manner of late Victorian England, but that was his infancy, not his childhood)," Ian Hacking, Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics at all (Cambridge 2014).

Friday, February 08, 2019

why self-help books are NOT to be dismissed & why parapsychology is anti-establishment


placebo domino:


"The tendency for prophecies to be self-fulfilling is well known in the realms of economics, politics, and religion. It is also a matter of practical psychology. Various ways of using these powers are the bases of countless self-help books, showing how avoiding negative attitudes and adopting positive ones help to bring about remarkable successes in politics, business, and love. Likewise confidence and optimism play an important part in the practice of medicine and healing—and in sports, fighting, and many other activities" Rupert Sheldrake, Seven Experiments That Could Change the World (Riverhead Books, 1995). 

"A survey of a wide range of drug trials has revealed that placebos are, on average, about a third to a half as effective as specific medication—a big effect for blank pills that cost almost nothing. But placebos are not just blank pills. They can also be forms of blank counseling or psychotherapy, or even blank surgery... in medical research, placebo effects are generally regarded as a nuisance. But perhaps the negative attitudes of physicians to placebos is just as well, since it is the other side of the coin of their faith in the special efficacy of their own techniques, which therefore tend to work better—because of the placebo effect!" Sheldrake, Seven Experiments.

"In his analysis of the many documents we have about such practices, Levi-Strauss underlines that the fallaciousness involved in them is at the same time acknowledged and simply ignored, brushed aside, by the shamans themselves. What matters to the shamans is the effect they produce in the imagination of the sick, no matter if the instrument they use is a fake one. Actually a clear distinction of what is fake and what is not fake is obstinately eluded by the very characteristics of the procedure... [Walter Cannon's] classic paper “Voodoo Death,” begins exactly with a reference to Portuguese colonizers such as Soares de Souza, who “observed instances of death among the [Brazilian] Tupinambás Indians induced by fright when men were condemned and sentenced by a so-called medicine man” (Cannon, 1942: 169). Although Cannon attributed the cause of such effects to the superstition of the primitive mind (primitive men really believe in witchcraft), he nonetheless acknowledged these effects to be real, and he was very impressed by them, for they can be quite astonishing. Healthy people can die in less than twenty-four hours, if they believe with enough strength that they have been bewitched or if they discover they have eaten some (normal and not poisonous) food they associate with certain well- established taboos in their culture (Cannon, 1942: 170). It should be understood however that the superstition in question would be better characterized not as a naive belief in some falseness at the expense of what reality would truly be. What the shamans do is to theatrically blur fiction and ordinary reality in order to conjure some power coming from what would be a more fundamental source of reality which is not visible and cannot be immediately given. They could thus, correspondingly, accuse someone such as Cannon of actually being more superstitious than they are, exactly because of Cannon’s inability to treat ordinary and visible reality as the fiction it truly is when compared to what would be its fundamental source," Alessandro Zir, Luso-Brazilian Encounters of the Sixteenth-Century (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 2011).

psychokinesis: 


"In the physical sciences, although there has been very little empirical research on experimenter effects, there have been many sophisticated discussions of the role of the observer in quantum theory... if the active influence of the experimenter's mind is taken seriously, then many possibilities open up—even the possibility that the observer's mind may have psychokinetic powers," Rupert Sheldrake, Seven Experiments.

"If [subjects with psychic powers] are anxious, uncomfortable, or treated in a formal and detached way by the scientific investigators, they do not perform so well. In fact they may show no significant psychic powers at all... The pioneering parapsychologist J. B. Rhine actually quantified this effect in a series of trials with a gifted subject, Hubert Pearce, having noticed that when someone called in to see Pearce at work his scores at once dropped down," Rupert Sheldrake, Seven Experiments.

"There is a good reason for the conventional taboo against parapsychology, making it a kind of outcast from established science. The existence of psychic phenomena would seriously endanger the illusion of objectivity," Rupert Sheldrake, Seven Experiments.

"An experimenter preparing his apparatus, getting his animals ready, and then leaving them with some feeling of assurance that the experiment will run and the animals will appropriately 'do their thing' cannot but remind us of certain aspects of magic, ritual, or perhaps petitionary prayer... Such circumstances may provide an optimum opportunity for psychokinetic intervention," R. G. Stamford, "An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi occurrences" (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 66, as quoted by Sheldrake in Seven Experiments).

"Generally speaking scientists are no Carries, though there might have been a few registered but far less noxious cases such as Wolfgang Pauli and the Pauli effect," Alessandro Zir, The Sixteenth-Century Corpus of the Portuguese Colonizers of Brazil (Dalhousie, PhD thesis) [the paragraph of this sentence (which refers also to Ludwik Fleck) unfortunately wasn't incorporated in the book Luso-Brazilian Encounters published in 2011 by FDU Press].







Wolfgang Pauli
as a young student
(picture taken from
the Internet/CERN)











---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---//---/
A tale of how bitterness caused by envious people can make an off guard good fellow to crack:
"Cantor was embarrassed to be associated with a second-rate school... He expected to be called any day to take up a professor ship at the University of Berlin. But Kronecker sensed that if he mounted a strong opposition—and made the attack personal—eventually Cantor would crack... Kronecker was vilifying Cantor, calling him a charlatan and a corrupter of youth, and referring to his work as 'humbug.' Cantor was besieged, lonely, angry, and frustrated... Cantor became more enraged. He sought to retaliate against Kronecker, and in despair came up with a bizarre plan. He was now convinced that he could never obtain a professorship in Berlin since Kronecker, entrenched and powerful, would always stand in his way. So Cantor decided to apply for a professorship anyway, for the mere purpose of annoying his enemy... Cantor wrote Mittag-Leffler of his ploy and its results: 'I knew precisely the immediate effect this would have, that in fact Kronecker would flare up as if stung by a scorpion, and with his reserve troops would strike up such a howl that Berlin would think it had been transported to the sandy deserts of Africa, with its lions, tigers, and hyenas. It seems that I have actually achieved this goal!' But Kronecker's turn to strike back at Cantor. Kronecker wrote to Mittag-Leffler asking to publish in his journal, Acta Mathematica. Kronecker was shrewdly trying to push Cantor out of the only mathematical journal that had a sympathetic editor interested in his work. Cantor suspected that Kronecker's paper would constitute an attack on his own work published in Acta Mathematica, the journal he considered his home turf, and would discredit him there, where it would hurt him the most. In frustration and fear, Cantor wrote to his friend Mittag-Leffler threatening to stop sending him his work... As it turned out, Kronecker had no paper to send, he had simply pretended to want to publish in the journal in order to upset Cantor... Cantor's response eroded his relationship with one of his few remaining fiends, Mittag-Leffler... The strain of these battles, which Cantor never stood a chance of winning, was taking its toll on his health. In May 1884, Cantor had his first nervous breakdown, lasting over a month..." Amir D. Aczel, The Mystery of the Aleph (WSP 2000).

Rupert Sheldrake's TED talk:


"When I received a grant in 1968 from the Royal Society to go and study tropical plants in Malaysia, at the University of Malaya, I traveled through India on the way there. I found India a very exciting place to be, and as I traveled through that country I encountered gurus and ashrams and temples, which opened my eyes to a range of phenomena I was completely unfamiliar with. When I got back to England I got interested in exploring consciousness, and I had various psychedelic experiences, which convinced me that the mind was vastly greater than anything I'd been told about in my scientific education," Rupert Sheldrake's interview (TBS);


See also:
two sentences, the dogma of semantic uniformity & alchemy;
the odd transformation of Der Herr Warum;
- the only three types of ingenuity;
the most auspicious tetrahedron;
what is REAL space? what is REAL number?

Friday, February 01, 2019

Nova Ameaça ao Meio-Ambiente: Novo porto em Torres?! Quem se beneficia? Qual a lógica por trás?



Em reportagem publicada no jornal Zero Hora de 9 de janeiro de 2019, a jornalista Jéssica Rebeca Weber revela que "a idéia é apresentada pelo engenheiro civil Fernando Carrion e pelo senador Luis Carlos Heinze (PP)."

Quem é o senador?

Segundo, por exemplo, reportagem publicada no Yahoo notícias em 23 de outubro de 2018:

'Ligado ao setor rural do Rio Grande do Sul (estado que se destaca por sua produção agropecuária), Heinze trabalha em cima de renegociação de dívida de agricultores e – assim como o presidenciável pelo PSL – é crítico da demarcação de novas áreas indígenas. Em 2014, durante audiência pública da Comissão de Agricultura da Câmara em Vicente Dutra (RS), Heinze declarou que quilombolas, homossexuais e índios “são tudo que não presta”, e sugeriu a contratação de segurança privada pelos produtores rurais para manter a posse da terra. Mais tarde ele ponderou à imprensa que suas declarações (gravadas em vídeo divulgado nas redes sociais) foram feitas no “calor do debate” sobre conflitos entre indígenas e agricultores que haviam ocorrido em novembro do anterior. Também em 2014, votou contra a PEC do Trabalho Escravo, projeto que estipulava a desapropriação de terras de latifundiários que fossem flagrados submetendo seus trabalhadores a um regime análogo à escravidão.'

Heize nasceu em 1950, o engenheiro Fernando Carrion ainda antes da metade do século passado, em 1942 (segundo informações num site da Fundação Getúlio Vargas). 

Apesar de pelo menos um dos seus proponentes, o senador Luis Carlos Heinze do PP, se apresentar como defendendo perspectivas opostas aos anteriores governos do PT, em especial o de Dilma Rousseff, para cujo impeachment contribuiu, é patente a semelhança da lógica de um projeto como esse e aquela que foi vigente nos governos anteriores. Pensa-se o crescimento do país, antes de qualquer coisa, a partir de projetos megalomaníacos (pouco importa se ancorados no Estado ou na iniciativa privada), dependentes de estratégias indiferentes (quando não deletérias) ao meio-ambiente, e dentro de uma matriz ultrapassada de desenvolvimento como a produção extrativista em larga escala e exportação de commodities. 

***De acordo com reportagem do Jornal Nacional de 24 de abril de 2018, o PP, partido do senador, "é um dos partidos com mais investigados na Lava Jato." Outro político do PP diretamente envolvido no projeto do porto é o empresário do setor de construção, Ovídio Deitos, que é presidente desse partido em Caxias do Sul. Outros empresários desta cidade parecem também estar envolvidos. É preciso observar que Caxias do Sul foi de fato uma cidade industrial importante, com grandes fábricas de metalurgia que estão atualmente em declínio. Esses empresários enfrentam muitos problemas para se adaptar à nova economia mundial globalizada. O porto pode oferecer a eles uma pseudo-alternativa de salvação às custas do meio ambiente da região e da população local.

A proposta do "novo" porto não parece senão o velho disfarçado de novo (e ela de fato remonta ao século XIX), que vai, como sempre, beneficiar principalmente senão somente uma burocracia estatal preguiçosa e atrasada e/ou meia dúzia de oligarcas da iniciativa privada. Investimento externo viria de onde? China, máfia napolitana?!

A costa de torres é importante, por exemplo, para lobos marinhos, leões marinhos e baleias francas. Há, na região em que pretendem instalar esse porto, TRÊS reservas ecológicas: o Parque Estadual de Itapeva, o Refúgio da Vida Silvestre Ilha dos Lobos, e o Parque Tupancy

Como sabem os especialistas, no litoral do RS não há os costões graníticos e as baías protegidas do litoral de Santa Catarina. Isso implica uma série de riscos na construção desse tipo de porto, como a erosão. 

Ainda, a manutenção das infraestruturas já existentes no Brasil, como estradas, tem um enorme déficit. O Rio Grande do Sul, em especial, também há muito que não se destaca mais pela produção agropecuária, tendo perdido terreno para outros estados. É um estado com muitos problemas econômicos. Pretende-se, em meio a esse cenário, construir do zero, um novo porto?! 

Num país em que se tem permitido a ocorrência de desastres da escala daquele ocasionado pela Samarco em Mariana?! E Brumadinho, em menos de três anos?!!

O senador Heine, voltou a falar sobre o porto em entrevista ao jornal Correio do Povo. Pela convicção que ele expressa da execução da obra, ela certamente deve vir sendo planejada na surdina. Segundo o senador, uma das principais atividades do porto será a EXPORTAÇÃO DE GALINHA & SOJA:

Um dia de verão na região:













Como se sabe, Torres é
um município que abarca
diversas praias menores; 
essa se chama Paraíso, 
justamente aquela em que 
se pretende construir o porto.
(Fev 2019)




Outras fotos:



O clima do Rio Grande
do Sul como se sabe
é bastante instável,
modificando-se de forma
brusca ao longo de todo
o ano. Na história muito
recente de Torres, há inclusive
registro de formação de ciclone
com característica de furacão.
(Praia Paraíso/2015)



Mais fotos da mesma praia e região ao redor:

==============================================
Notícias Recentes na Imprensa Internacional sobre Brumadinho:
- Dam collapse: the desperate search at Brazil's 'ground zero' (The Guardian);
- 'The river is dying': the vast ecological cost of Brazil's mining disasters (The Guardian);
Dam Bursts at Vale Mine in Brazil (The Wall Street Journal)

Mais Material da Imprensa:
- O Conservador e o Atrasado (Elio Gaspari/Folha de São Paulo);

Postagens Relacionadas neste mesmo blog:
Blue Crab/ Siri Azul (Torres, Brazil, Jan 2019);

Ecoturismo como alternativa pro futuro: 


Qm aceita construir porto pra colocar reserva em risco?!
PARQUE DE ITAPEVA eh patrimônio de todos e o FUTURO da região;
PORTO eh projeto pra salvar meia dúzia de empresários do SÉCULO PASSADO com a corda no pescoço e dar dinheiro pra políticos.
Reportagem da Zero Hora (Aline Custódio, 6 de fevereiro de 2019):
'São mil hectares da única área que conserva o ambiente original do Litoral Norte gaúcho, dentro do bioma Mata Atlântica. As terras ficam no Parque Estadual de Itapeva, criado em 2002 com foco na conservação da fauna e da flora local.'
'... o parque não tem apenas florestas. Boa parte dele também contempla as últimas dunas costeiras do Estado, onde há espécies de animais que só vivem nelas e estão ameaçados, como a lagartixa das dunas e o tuco-tuco.'
'No ano passado, por exemplo, o gestor do parque, o biólogo Paulo Grübler, conta ter recebido turistas da Alemanha, da China, dos Estados Unidos e da Inglaterra.'
'Até 2010, um camping estadual funcionou nas dependências do parque. Com o fechamento dele, passou-se a discutir a elaboração de regras de visitação. Em maio do ano passado, Itapeva se tornou a primeira unidade de conservação do Estado a ter um plano de uso público, exclusivo e detalhado, para atender aos turistas. Orçado em R$ 7 milhões, o projeto prevê a construção de um centro de visitantes, com estacionamento, lanchonete, lojas de artesanato e um mirante de 12 metros de altura, fixado no ponto mais alto.'
'Também deverão ser implementadas atividades para potencializar o ecoturismo, como circuito de ciclismo e passeios de caiaque na Lagoa do Simão,' Parque de Itapeva preserva fauna e flora no último recanto original do Litoral Norte (Zero Hora).

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Blue Crab/ Siri Azul (Torres, Brazil, Jan 2019)


"In the past, most scientific research was carried
out by amateurs... Charles Darwin, for example, 
never held any institutional post; he worked 
independently at his home in Kent, studying 
barnacles, writing, keeping pigeons, and doing
experiments in the garden with his son Francis...
There are now only a handful of independent 
scientists, the best known being James Lovelock,
the leading proponent of the Gaia hypothesis...
And although amateur naturalists and freelance
inventors still exist, they have been marginalized."
Rupert Sheldrake


They simply kill these animals, because they come grabbed to their fishing nets. It doesn't look right to me. They kill them allot, during the Summer, while dragging their nets along the beach. Perhaps boats do even worse and we just don't see. 












pictures by A/Z,
Torres, Rio Grande 
do Sul/Brazil,
Jan 2019






"No Brasil, de modo geral, C. sapidus não constitui espécie-alvo de grandes pescarias, sendo basicamente explotada pela pesca artesanal no interior dos estuários, principalmente nas regiões sudeste e sul, bem como nas regiões costeiras como fauna acompanhante da pesca de arrasto de camarões. Geralmente os indivíduos capturados são devolvidos, já mortos, ao mar. Em alguns locais a espécie declinou consideravelmente, mas não existem dados suficientes para estimar o impacto das capturas na população de C. sapidus. Coleta de informações de captura e pesquisas voltadas a biologia pesqueira da espécie bem como o conhecimento do nível de degradação das áreas onde habita são necessárias para a alteração da condição de Dados Insuficientes (DD)," Avaliação do risco de extinção dos crustáceos no Brasil: 2010-2014 (ICMBIO);

"Nos Estados Unidos há só para o estudo e controle desta pescaria, uma série de comissões, leis, conferências, revistas científicas, livros, etc. Isto mostra a importância atribuída a esse recurso pesqueiro e a garantia da sua preservação," Siri azul do Atlântico americano: lixo ou tesouro do mar?

See also:
- https://www.bluecrab.info

And also:
Environmental Issue (Brazil);
Southern Lapwing Colour 4;
Southern Lapwing Colour 3;
Southern Lapwing Colour 2;
Southern Lapwing Colour 1;
Southern Lapwing B&W;

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

the most auspicious tetrahedron &/or two pairs of charming mathematicians












- Niels Henrik Abel
(picture taken from the Internet)















- Évariste Galois
(picture taken from the Internet)









What did they do?
Well, conjure the most remarkable consequences of an old ghost (Vieta's logistica speciosa): "solutions" for the general algebraic equations of degree higher than four.
================================

 








- Bernhard Riemann
(picture taken from the Internet)













- Kingdon Clifford
(picture taken from the Internet,
processed by A/Z)









What did they do?
Riemann simply solved the following riddle (and by doing so challenged classical and common sense understanding about space, which remains pretty much our understanding till nowadays): what is real space?
Clifford understood that.
"Riemann's allusions were ignored by the majority of contemporary mathematicians and physicists. His investigations were deemed too speculative and theoretical to bear any relevance to physical space, the space of experience. The only one who allied himself firmly to Riemann was the translator fo his works into English, William Kingdon Clifford... already in 1870, Clifford saw in Riemann's conception of space the possibility for a fusion of geometry with physics... Clifford conceived matter and its motion as a manifestation of varying curvature [of space]... For Aristotle, space was an accident of substance; for Clifford... substance is an accident of space... THESE SPECULATIONS AROUSED GREAT OPPOSITION AMONG ACADEMIC PHILOSOPHERS..." (Max Jammer, Concepts of Space, Dover 1993);
"Riemann came to a deep philosophical conviction that a complete mathematical theory must be established, which would take the elementary laws governing points and transform them to the great generality of the plenum (by which he meant continuously-filled space)... the Riemann Integral calculus is defined as an infinite sum of integrals of step functions. Such infinite sums became the starting points for the study of infinite by Georg Cantor" (Amir D. Aczel, The Mystery of the Aleph, WSP 2000);