Friday, December 11, 2015

Elements of Musical Language (by Bruno Kiefer), Brazilian Popular Music, José Miguel Wisnik & John Baur
















Manifesto Juliana D ou Conversa com um Passarinho (for more see here);
Radamés Gnattali (Hermínio Bello de Carvalho/Contra Luz, 1986); 
Webern's Sonatensatz (Rondo) für Klavier (1906) (interpreted by Gianluca Cascioli);
Modulation using the Neapolitan (Gareth Green/Music Matters, Dez 2019); 
The Italian Augmented 6th (Music Theory For Guitar, Dez 2020);
Augmented Sixth Chords (Music Theory Advanced, Aug 2016); 
Did Wagner and Debussy Hated Each Other? (Robert Estrin/Living Piano Videos, Fev 2020); 
Deconstructing Diminished Chords (Jake Lizzio/Signals Music Studio, Nov 2017); 
Tritone Substitution Explained (Julian Bradley/Jazz Tutorial, April 2017);
The Bizarre World of Augmented Chords (Jake Lizzio/Signals Music Studio); 
De Polirritmia, Polimétrica y Konnakol (Ludo Hunt, Dez 2019); 
Polyrhyths vs Polymeters (Andrew Huang, Nov 2020); 
Truncated Polymeters, Writing Complex Prog (Jake Lizzio/Signals Music Studio, Fev 2019); 
Hemiola: What It is & Writing Funky Jams with it (Jake Lizzio/Signals Music Studio, Mar 2018);

Synchrony:
- rhythmic factors: duration, intensity, waves (fluctuations of intensity, caused by variations of pitch, timbre etc.) (p. 23-26);
- elements that shape melodic intervals: tension, luminosity (p. 49); 
- chord: the simultaneous sounding of three or more sounds (p. 70);
- figure: melodic fragment that, inside a piece, turns out to be indivisible (p. 51);
- motive: has a complementary or contrary fragment that generates tension in relation to it (p. 54); 
- theme: melodic fragment (made of one or more figures), used in the building of a section (p. 61); structural bloc, with a melodic, rhythmic and/or harmonic character (p. 63);
- repetition: if literal, produces monotony; it might take place through ascendant or descendant progression (p. 52); 
- imitation: repetition that occurs between different voices (with or without variation) (p. 52, 61-62); 
- variation: "repetition with superficial or more deep changes in the model"; it might involve direct motion, inversion and retrograde motion, with augmentation or diminution of rhythmic values (p. 52-53);
- polyphony: superposition of two or more voices (which are rhythmically or melodically independent; each voice should have its own expressive meaning); vertical (harmonic) factors are also important (otherwise we would have only a cacophony) (p. 65); the voices might imitate one another or not (p. 67-68);
- fugue: the theme "remains" (p. 62); 
- sonata-allegro form: two themes are presented (A), the material is developed (B), the themes are presented again (p. 63) [exposition-development-recapitulation, as says John Baur in his Music Theory Through Literature, Vol. 2 (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985) p. 10]; 

Diachrony [cf. "Why, if everything is possible, do we concern ourselves with history (in other words, with a sense of what is necessary to be done at a particular time)? And I would answer, in order to thicken the plot... all those interpenetrations which seem at first glance hellish—history, for instance, if we are speaking of experimental music—are to be espoused," (John Cage History of Experimental Music in the United States)]:
- from the 9th century onwards: polyphony: importance of vertical dimension (p. 70);
- gothic period: strong beat: consonant sounds (perfect octave, perfect fifth, perfect fourth, unison); weak beat: dissonant sounds (great liberty) (p. 71);
- 13th century: thirds are admitted as imperfect consonant sounds (p. 71);
- 14th century: sixths are admitted as consonant sounds (Philippe de Vitry) (p. 71);
- 15th century: increase in the use of perfect major and minor chords (root position and first inversion) (gain in terms of sensuous qualities) (p. 71);
- baroque: increase in the use of dissonances (dramatic/expressive purposes) (seventh chords) (Monteverdi) (p. 72);
- baroque (third phase): consolidation of the tonal system (p. 72);
- Beethoven onwards: harmonic innovations (p. 73);
- romanticism: great enrichment of harmony; introduction of elements contributing to the dissolution of the tonal system (p. 73);
- Schoenberg (second phase): atonalism (p. 73);
- Pierre Schaeffer: concrete music (p. 73);
- electronic music (p. 74);
*****Bruno Kiefer, Elementos da Linguagem Musical (Porto Alegre: Movimento, 1987);

Brazilian Modinhas e Lundus:
"... the music there was peculiarly bewitching and delightful, the modinhas... it was all which made the merit of music in antiquity, and belonged to poetry and sense... that melody and harmony which steals into the heart... melts the soul... Such music is irresistible in its effects in the southern climate..."
William Thomas Beckford 
"Le lundù a des charmes qui tournent les têtes les plus solides."
Santa-Anna Nery 
[most remarkable characteristic of both modinhas and lundus: syncopated melodic lines (semiquaver — quaver — semiquaver);] 
"... descending melodic lines are the most common. The beginning of those lines is generally attained by significant ascending leaps or by ascending arpeggios... Such characteristics lend the modinhas simplicity, intimism, sweetness, longing. The modinha is a sequence of sensual sighs... it is far away from the grandiloquence of arias in Italian operas [but frequently harmed by the shadow of bel canto]..." (Bruno Kiefer, Raízes da Música Popular Brasileira: da modinha e lundo ao samba. Porto Alegre: Movimento, 2013, p. 28).
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(meta)física & antropologia do som (Wisnik):


"A onda é formada de um sinal que se apresenta e de uma ausência que o pontua desde dentro, ou desde sempre... Sem esse lapso, o som não pode durar... O tímpano auditivo entraria em espasmo. O som é presença e ausência... está permeado de silêncio."
"É impossível a um som se apresentar sem durar, minimamente que seja, assim como é impossível que uma duração sonora se apresente concretamente sem se encontrar numa faixa qualquer de altura, por mais indefinida e próxima do ruído que essa altura possa ser."
"... aquele ponto de inflexão... entre dez e quinze vibrações por segundo, no limiar oscilante entre as figuras rítmicas e a altura melódica, coincide muito aproximadamente com a faixa vibratória do chamado ritmo alfa... Segundo Alain Daniélou... a base que determina o valor do tempo relativo e consequentemente todas as relações do ser vivo com seu ambiente... diapasão temporal" [cf. John Cage:  "therefore any valid structure involving sounds and silences should be based, not as occidentally traditional, on frequency, but rightly on duration, one enters an anechoic chamber to discover that one hears two sounds of one's own unintentional making (nerve's systematic operation, blood's circulation)" (Experimental Music: Doctrine); "... of all the aspects of sound including frequency, amplitude, and timbre, duration, alone, was also a characteristic of silence..."/still an "abstraction", but perhaps in the end and as such the most useful (Composition as Process)].
"... cada som concreto corresponde na realidade não a uma onda pura, mas a um feixe de ondas, uma superposição intricada de freqüências de comprimento desigual... imbricação de pulsos desiguais, em atrito relativo... aquela singularidade colorística que chamamos timbre... que pode ser, como através de um prisma, subdividido nos sons da chamada série harmônica."
"A intensidade é uma informação sobre um certo grau de energia da fonte sonora... Através das alturas e durações, timbres e intensidades, repetidos e/ou variados, o som se diferencia ilimitadamente... O som do mar: durações oscilantes entre a pulsação e a inconstância, num movimento ilimitado; alturas em todas as freqüências, das mais graves às mais agudas, formando o que se chama um ruído branco."
"... a música não refere nem nomeia coisas visíveis, como a linguagem verbal... aponta para o não verbalizável... toca em pontos de ligação efetivos do mental e do corporal, do intelectual e do afetivo... o som é invisível e impalpável... isso faz com que se tenha atribuído à música as próprias propriedades do espírito... os instrumentos musicais são vistos como objeto mágicos... A música traduz para nossa escala sensorial... a intimidade anímica da matéria... eficácia simbólica [Lévi-Strauss]... materialidade sutil [hinduísmo]."
"... essa música [ritual] é voltada para pulsação rítmica; nela, as alturas melódicas estão quase sempre a serviço do ritmo, criando pulsações complexas e uma experiência do tempo vivido como descontinuidade contínua, como repetição permanente do diferente... o canto gregoriano acaba por desviar a música modal do domínio do pulso para o predomínio das alturas... Com isso inaugurou de certo modo o ciclo da música ocidental moderna..."
"Stravinski, na Sagração da Primavera (1913), introduziu agregados de acordes, quase-clusters que funcionam como ruído, impulsões ruidosas, percussão operando numa métrica irregular que volta a questionar a linha perdida na tradição do Ocidente: a base produtiva do pulso."
"O sistema dodecafônico de Schoenberg, como proposta de organização melódico-harmônica da uma música pós-tonal, sem centro, sem o mecanismo de tensão-e-repouso que marca o tonalismo, e que foge a toda polarização, radicalizada depois no serialismo, é não só a música do não-pulso como também o limiar da não-altura."
"Cage fez com que o piano, de instrumento produtor de alturas, se transformasse num multiplicador de timbres e ruídos... O ritmo para Cage não está na regularidade das batidas nem na mensurabilidade das durações, mas na flutuação 'sobre a crista de uma vaga métrica' ou de uma não-métrica enquanto tal... desativação do tempo do ego, do prazer como descarga de energia acumulada, e uma dessacralização radical do som..."
"Um som musical de altura definida... já tem embutido dentro de si um espectro intervalar... uma configuração harmônica virtual... sequência dos harmônicos... vibrações mais rápidas que se incluem como múltiplos no mesmo pulso fundamental... o sampler permite realizar essa experiência de conversão do tom em pulso... contraponto instantâneo entre Europa e África..."
"O trítono é baseado numa relação numérica 32/45. Divide a oitava ao meio, e é igual à própria inversão: projeta com isso uma forte instabilidade."
"A segunda menor... está perto dos menores intervalos relevantes para a diferenciação auditiva. Como é produto da defasagem entre dois pulsos muito próximos, 15/16 ciclos, a arritmia dissonante que ele produz soa como um erro... distorção... diferença... tensão... sensível."
"... o ritmo supõe... uma leitura de sua recorrência sempre a partir de certas balizas... Dois pulsos... podem estar defasados... o que resultará em síncopa, a alternância entremeada de dois pulsos jogando entre o tempo e o contratempo, e chamando o corpo a ocupar esse intervalo que os diferencia através da dança."
"... a quinta, o segundo intervalo da escala harmônica, que sucede a oitava e a dinamiza, gerando movimento e diferença, é a base para a construção das escalas mais conhecidas e usadas no mundo todo: a pentatônica... a diatônica (sete notas)..."
"A circularidade em torno de um eixo harmônico fixo é um traço próprio do mundo modal, e diferenciador em relação ao mundo da música tonal..."
"... se o engendramento por quintas prossegue para além da pentatônica, surgem problemas novos [dois semitons e o trítono]... escala diatônica... imago mundi da perfeição defeituosa."
"Os gregos chamavam ethos o caráter de cada modo, vendo nele uma qualidade mimética e uma potencialidade ética... construção de modos... Messiaen... Debussy [escala de sons inteiros, equivalência, trítonos]."
"O único intervalo fixo que os árabes adotam é a quarta... todos os outros intervalos são variáveis e móveis, permitindo a construção de múltiplas combinações escalares... colorido microtonalismo... potência expressiva... 133 ciclos escalares... A tradição indiana também cria uma complexa multiplicidade escalar baseada na riqueza das nuances... A combinatória intervalar produz 72  escalas completas."
"O sistema de afinação 'natural', que respeita aquelas nuances que garantem a máxima definição do intervalo, só é compatível, no entanto, com o sistema modal, onde as notas de uma escala se reportam a cada vez a uma tônica fixa [ao contrário, a música tonal moderna favorece o trânsito da tônica por modulações]."
"[texturas polifônicas dos balineses e pigmeus]... cada músico sustenta um motivo de caráter repetitivo e, como esses motivos são desiguais, o resultado é uma pulsação com pontos múltiplos de fase e de defasagem, de acentuações de caráter cíclico em permanente deslocamento, de sucessiva repetição continuamente diferente."
"O caráter heptatônico do modelo planetário tradicional coincide com a estrutura escalar heptatônica [modelo cosmológico, música das alturas; dias da semana e ciclo de quintas]."
"A resolução do trítono no acorde [cadência] equivale igualmente à formulação da perspectiva na pintura."
"Bach poderá escrever o primeiro volume do Cravo bem temperado, no mesmo ano (1722) em que Rameau publica o seu Tratado de harmonia."
"... os sons daquele acorde que contém mais defasagens implícitas geram tensão, e daqueles que contenham menos defasagens, ou mais freqüências de fase, geram repouso. A história do sistema tonal é a história da administração desse jogo..."
"Impõe-se perguntar que tipo de escolhas teria levado a fixar o modo de ut [dó]... como a ordem básica da nova música... é o único em que as tríades formadas sobre os graus da tônica e das dominantes [quinto e quarto grau] são tríades maiores... Isso contribui para dar um relevo enfático à polaridade tônica/dominante... um outro ponto crucial... o acorde de sétima de dominante [sol-si-re-fá, sétima menor]... contém dentro de si o trítono... situado estrategicamente, como dupla sensível, no ponto mais adequado à sua resolução, pela vizinhança estreita que mantém com o acorde da tônica."
"... a tonalidade guarda um resíduo modal na forma da oposição entre os modos maior e menor..."
"... a forma sonata clássica irá fazer da modulação o seu recurso maior de dramatização..."
"[Já] em Mozart, por exemplo, numa peça como a Fantasia K. 475, em dó menor, o deslizamento modulatório torna difícil a própria definição tonal..."
"O dodecafonismo é a mais completa explicitação do pano de fundo cromático sobre o qual se desenvolve o tonalismo, que vem à tona negando todo diatonismo e todo movimento cadencial... tonalismo pelo avesso: o diabolus cobra seu preço..."
"Não estaria Mahler, o leitor de Dostoiévski, realizando obliquamente aquele projeto musical desentranhado do Fausto, e que está contido em germe em O Adolescente?"
"Os espelhos [da série dodecafônica] abrem um campo de variações ao tratamento polifônico... a série raramente se apresenta como um tema melódico, mas já através de agrupamentos de acordes, de emissões sonoras espalhadas pelo campo da tessitura, pontilhadas fragmentariamente por vários instrumentos, numa melodia de timbres."
"Weber singulariza o seu tratamento da série radicalizando o princípio do espelho: ele procura configurações intervalares de doze sons que já sejam, elas mesmas, a condensação de um espaço simétrico, ao mesmo tempo que labiríntico e sem centro (uma série que já contenha, em avesso do avesso, os seus próprios espelhos)."
"Stockhausen uniu interesse serial a uma sondagem toda pessoal da relação entre o tempo e o espaço na estrutura sonora. A sua composição se combina na década de 50 com uma inquietação teórica sobre as relações entre durações e alturas, espacialização melódica e temporalidade rítmica, que a pesquisa eletrônica faz ver como aspectos de uma mesma coisa..."
"A intuição das durações e das alturas como formas diferentes de uma mesma base freqüencial é o monólito negro da história das músicas. Essa intuição é ao mesmo tempo arcaica e futura... (presente e ausente, real e fantasmático)..."
[Doktor Faustus, O Adolescente, Bakhtin, Haroldo de Campos]
[Beethoven, últimos quartetos, Sonata op. 106]
[Chopin, Liszt, compositores russos]
[Charles Ives, Villa-Lobos]
*****José Miguel Wisnik, O Som e o Sentido: Uma outra história das músicas (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2011); 

More: 
"For all his radicalism in matters of style, Schoenberg believed that every composer needed to understand how to handle these traditional forms [sonata, rondo etc.]; the more exploratory and boundary-stretching musical language was becoming, he insisted, the more important it was that the technical and structural articulation of the language must be securely based... Most of these sonic devices [for colouristic sonorities in Webern's String Quartet of 1905] turn up in music of earlier periods (Mozart's deployment of muted string sound, for instance, is wonderfully imaginative)."
"It is significant that Schoenberg, who wrote a number of textbooks on musical subjects—harmony, counterpoint, form, fundamentals of composition—never wrote one on twelve-note technique, and never taught it to any of his pupils (neither did Webern). There exists a potentially infinite variety of twelve-note methods; Webern, like Schoenberg, used more than one approach at various times, as has virtually every other twelve-note composer since. Some even had earlier. The Austrian composer Josef Matthias Hauer... Charles Ives... The description 'serial', too, is often used as if it were interchangeable with 'twelve-note'. This is little misleading... Strict counterpoint, particularly canonic counterpoint, amounts to a genre of serial procedure... it can be argued that many passages in Bach or Josquin de Près, for instance, are in this sense serial music."
Malcolm Hayes, Anton von Webern
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Theory through Music Literature (John Baur):


[use of imperfect consonances in motetos (“only in internal portion of the phrase and moving to perfect intervals”); use of dissonances (seconds, sevenths, and tritones), as neighboring and passing tones (: 60);]
[Ars Nova: triple to duple meter; increase of thirds; extension of isorhythm (: 76);]
"The fifteenth century was the beginning of the real codification of dissonance usage" (: 93);
"The suspension is one of the most important dissonances from the fifteenth century thorough the nineteenth century. It consists of three parts: preparation [weak beat/consonant], suspension [strong beat/ dissonant], and resolution [weak beat/ consonant]. ... With only one exception, the suspension occurs in an upper voice and always resolves downward by step, thereby creating the following possible intervallic successions: 2-1, 4-3, 7-6, 9-8. ... Note that the bass line moves to create the dissonance, and the other voice has its note suspended and then resolves" (: 94);

[single leading tone cadence {vii-I} (96);]
[tonal cadence {V-1} {common toward late 15th century but can be found earlier} (97-98)]
"Although examples of four-part music existed before the mid-fifteenth century, it is not until then that pieces with more than three voices became standard. The addition of the fourth voice creates one major compositional problem: in a four-voice setting of a three-note triad, a note must be doubled" (:114);
"The problem of parallel-fifth and parallel-octave motion between two voices came to composers’ attention in the fifteenth century. It gradually became considered improper to use this motion, partly for the sake of the sound and partly because of a concern to preserve independence of parts" (: 116-117);
"In a four-part setting, composers of this period tend to infuse the top line with a larger portion of the melodic interest and drive" (: 118);
"Josquin des Prez (ca. 1440-1521) was one of the most remarkable composers of all time. Respected by musicians, religious authorities, and laymen alike, he set the standard for the style of the sixteenth century almost single-handedly" (: 138);
"Pervasive imitation controls the flow of melodic/harmonic motion and the presentation of ideas. A short melodic fragment, clearly constructed and immediately “imitated” in each of the voices, is used for each phrase of text" (: 138);
"One additional tonal cadence is used as well, the deceptive cadence. As the names implies, this occurs when an authentic cadence is expected and a deceptive shift results. The deceptive motion occurs when the V chord resolves to a chord with a root a second above V—that is, to the vi chord, instead of the tonic triad. The purpose for this could very well be one of extension... it... is helpful in extending the piece and avoiding finality. In addition, it is a most effective way of building tension, thereby enhancing the final V-I cadence" (: 143);
"... the sixteenth century used dissonance somewhat less than in earlier periods" (: 143);
"One type of suspension that comes into greater use is the so-called bass suspension. It follows the normal process of suspensions, but instead of a voice being suspended above the bass, the bass itself is the suspended note. The only intervallic configuration for this type of suspension is 2-3. In reality the 2-3 suspension is the inversion of the 7-6 suspension. The two voices are simply exchanges, and each moves in its original manner" (: 144);
"use of secondary tonics" (: 144);
"Another voice leading principle deals with the dissonance of the tritone, the d5 or A4. In previous centuries, this interval was prohibited. However, in the fifteenth century and to an even greater extent in the sixteenth century, it began to be used within the diminished triad. Usually used in first inversion with the third of the triad (the bass voice) doubled... Augmented intervals usually resolve outward, while diminished ones resolve inward. This rule indicates the proper resolution of most tritones" (: 167);
"As will be recalled it is necessary that a V chord be major in order to contain a half-step leading tone to the next chord. .../ This is the system of secondary function that we have seen as far back as Josquin. The means used for this are secondary dominants, or triads that function as dominants to triads other than the tonic of the key. Any degree of the scale can become a secondary tonic, if a secondary dominant is constructed to lead to that pitch" (: 192);
"Another important contribution of Monteverdi is his use of the seventh chord. ... The triad first used as a basis for the addition of the seventh was the dominant" (: 194);
"... numerous uses of chords can be seen, but they usually fall into a few basic patterns: IV-V-I; ii-V-I; vi-IV-I; IV-vii[dim]-I. The common feature here is that of the position of each chord in relation to the tonic. A IV or ii chord usually precedes a V chord. A vii[dim] or V chord almost always precedes a I chord (the exception being the plagal motion of IV-I). And vi almost always precedes a IV or a ii chord, occasionally a V chord" (: 202);
"The chromatic pattern helps create tension both melodically and harmonically; the dramatic qualities of this motion, and their relationship to the opera, are of special significance. At this moment in the opera, Dido has just been left by her lover Aeneas, and she is about to die by her own hand. The idea of death is portrayed musically, as well as dramatically, by the chromatic descent of the ground bass. The use of minor mode, the chromaticism, and the large amount of dissonance add to the pathos" (: 217);
"A most important feature of the minor scales is that they contain great melodic and harmonic possibilities. The inclusion of so many chromatic notes in its normal scale formations produces a vast array of chordal possibilities. The possibilities of a minor and a major subdominant and dominant chord is of special interest, since Purcell mixes these frequently. Note that the minor v chord is normally used when moving away from the tonic harmony and the major V chord is used to push towards the tonic. An important feature of the minor mode is the use of both the half-diminished and fully diminished seventh. The former occurs on the second scale degree in minor and the later occurs on the seventh scale degree" (: 217);
"The half-diminished-seventh chord normally appears on the second scale degree in minor, and on the seventh degree in major... The actual function of the ii and vii triads remains the same as before: the ii[dim]/7 will still resolve to V and the vii[dim]/7 will move to I" (: 219);
"... tonal progression in minor key: III VI iio (or iv) V (or viio) i" (: 221);
"This cadence [Neapolitan?] is similar to the Phrygian cadence found in the modal period, but the resolution is slightly different and its function is considerably changed" (: 223);
"... augmented-sixth chord, so named because of the interval of the augmented sixth between the outer voices... [Italian, German and French]" 
"Neapolitan 6th chord: It moves directly to the V chord in the next measure. it always has a root of the lowered second scale degree, is usually found in the minor key in the first inversion, and is always a major chord" (: 240);
[hemiola, shifting from a two-beat meter to a three-beat meter, or vice-versa; “hemiola can add a strong rhythmic flavor, and can be quite effective in moving a phrase toward a strong cadence" (: 242);]
"The tonal design is actually very much like that seen in the Corelli suite: 1. establishment of the key, with motion to the dominant; 2. motion to more distant tonal areas, with development of various keys through diatonic modulation; 3. return to the tonic key to balance the motion away from the tonic. This basic tripartite design—stability, instability, and return to stability—was used by Bach and numerous other composers" (: 251);
[fugue; fugue subject; statement section; working-out section; restatement or stretto section; “As is normal, the first is in the tonic, the second in the dominant; the second entry, which is slightly altered intervallically, is generally referred to as the answer to the subject” (: 259); “In this fugue, and in many others as well, the counterpoint to the answering voice is repeated with every subject entry. This second voice, or continuation of the subject, is called the countersubject when it remains the same for each entry. In some fugues the counterpoint is different for each entry and therefore does not constitute a true countersubject” (: 260);][motivic material (: 9)]
[sonata-allegro form: exposition-development-recapitulation (: 10);]
[appoggiatura vs. grace-note figure (: 12);]
[first and second theme in sonata-allegro form (: 13);]
[dominant ninth chord (: 26), the ninth is usually minor (: 28);]
[enharmonic modulation; “simply easier to write” (: 35);]
"An interesting feature of Beethoven’s style is his penchant for building his movements from short motives. The first twelve measures contain four motives that are used later, especially in the development section" (: 60);
"This configuration is then contracted to sixteenth notes and the harmonic alternation to every beat instead of every two. Finally the harmonic changes occur on every eighth note. The tension produced by this contraction of the harmonic/linear/rhythmic complex is overwhelming… to understand Beethoven’s achievement of musical momentum, it is vital to grasp the nature of his directional control at all levels. The motivic, melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, and phrasing aspects of the piece all unite in a dramatic and logical procession of events. This is a major reason for the strength of the forward motion in Beethoven’s works" (: 62);
[altered dominant chord: “a dominant chord which has been chromatically changed but retains its dominant function” (: 70);]
[chromatic modulation: “modulation to a key which does not have a common chord with the original key” (: 70);]
[third relation keys: “modulation from a key center to another a third away; the new key does not fit within the old, as in CM-am, but is a more distant relation, such as CM-AM” (: 70);]
"Schubert excelled all other song composers in the early nineteenth century. His melodies are clear, beautifully shaped, and free of excessive embellishment, while the accompaniments are both simple and subtly suggestive at the same time" (: 76);
[harmonic ambiguity (: 78);]
[substitute dominant (: 79);]
[evolution of the modern orchestra in the Classic era (: 100);]
[interchangeability of mode: “use of chords from both the major and the minor modes within the same key” (: 114);]
[isolation of dissonance; appoggiatura (: 117);]
[fast passing dissonance (surface dissonances above a solid harmonic basis in the left hand) (: 118);]
[planning: parallel motion of chords (used non-functionally) (: 121);]
[expansion of inside the pulse (: 122);]
[rubato, “the expressive fluctuation of tempo in the right hand with a steady left hand” (: 123);]
"In Wagner’s music the functional attributes of chords are stretched, expanded, obscured, and embellished, but rarely destroyed" (: 148);
… modulatory motion is both fast and surprising… (: 148);
… dissonance is… the backbone of Wagner’s style… (: 149);
"The general feeling evoked is one of constant evolution, with no solid key center on which to depend. This feeling is produced not only by the fast harmonic rhythm but also by the avoidance of strong cadences as a result of deceptive motion or quick modulation to a new key center" (: 152);
[leitmotivs (: 159);]
"… spacing of the notes within the cords. In many cases Brahms uses spacing as part of the musical projection of the phrase…" (: 180);
[planning; “sonority and line, rather than specific tonal function, are the important ideas” (Debussy) (: 195);]
"Intervallic consistency is one of the hallmarks of the twentieth century…" (: 196);
[explorations of various kinds of scale (: 201);]
[added tones, determining the color of a chord (: 201);]
[bitonality: “juxtaposition of two distinct tonal areas, either melodically or harmonically; pandiatonicism: “the the free use of the diatonic scale in a nonfunctional way” (Stravinsky) (: 229);]
[synthetic scale (Bartok) (: 235);]
[variation of gesture (Schoenberg) (: 246);]
"Schoenberg usually avoids triadic figures and the resolution of triton constructions, both melodic and harmonic. His preference is for chords based on fourths and tritons, often vertically alternating in appearance. However, equally important sounds are the major seventh and minor ninth" (: 252);
"Another harmonic sound is used almost in opposition to the triton/fourth. It is based on the third, but usually outlines an augmented triad with one addition. The augmented triad is perhaps the least-used third-based triad in previous centuries, possibly contributing to its appeal to early-twentieth-century composers" (: 253);
"[Messiaen] strong interest in the Catholic liturgy has resulted in his quoting of chant and use of modal references; a knowledge of early music has given him a battery of compositional procedures; his long-held interest in transcribing birdsong adds an element both natural and fantastic to his melodic writing; and interest in Indian music has added rhythmic subtlety... The Quartet for the End of Time was written while Messiaen was in a Nazi prison camp in the early 1940’s, and was dedicated to the three fellow prisoners with whom he performed the work" (: 275);
"Penderecki’s approach to sound involves large clusters rather than traditional melody, harmony and counterpoint. Penderecki gradually builds up a sound and then spatially moves it" (: 308);
*****John Baur, Music Theory Through Literature. Vols. 1 & 2 (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985);

More: 
- intervals: 2nd (M, m), 3rd (M & m), 4th (P, Aug {5th dim, tritone}), 5th (P, dim {4th Aug, tritone), Aug {6th m}), 6th (M, m {5th Aug}), 7th (M, m, dim), tritone (4th Aug, 5th dim); 
-  triads: M, m, Aug {3rd M, 5th Aug}, dim {3rd m, 5th dim}; 
- chords with 7th: 7M (7th m), V7 (7th M), 7m, 7dim; 
- inversions (what matters is in the bottom of the chord);
- non-chord tones (can be diatonic or chromatic): passing tones, neighbor tones, appoggiatura (strong beat, approached by leap and resolved by step in the opposite direction), scape tone (opposite of appoggiatura), double neighbor, suspensions (use a common tone), retardation (with leading tone {?}), anticipation; 
- pedal: suspended or repeated note over a chord progression (build tension); 
- grace notes (ornaments): acciaccaturas (not in time), appoggiaturas (in time) (common in blues and boogie-woogie);
- suspensions (chords, polyphony {?}): S2, S4 (normally with tonic or dominant chords), classical resolutions: 9-8, 6-5, 4-3, 2-3, 2-1 {?}; 
- chromatic chords (different from diatonic chords, that is, from chords within the given key): more atmospheres than chords (include the chords below);
- Neapolitan 6th (not the chord of the 6th degree) (generally appears in first inversion) (pre-dominant chord) (lowered 2nd degree, supertonic, frygian mode) (≠ from Italian 6th chord);
- augmented 6th chords (intervals of augmented 6th, first inversion, resolution outwards) (pre-dominant chords) (odd accidentals: mix of raised and lowered chords, since the 4th degree is raised and, if you are not in a minor key, the sixth is lowered; these alterations make explicit the outward resolution by semitones) (Italian, German {with a 7th}, French {with a 4th} {two tritones} {will become a common chord in Jazz});  
- diminished 7th chords (appears diatonically only in the 7th degree, and also in the 2nd degree of minor modes) (half-diminished {5th, not so much used (?)}, fully diminished {5th and 7th}, ≠ from V7) (very complex chord) (when fully diminished can be thought as "coming" from the relative minor key of the tone they are resolving to) (can lead {and modulate} to any chord by ascending semitone, or by descending a tone {like ii-I} {are like a tritone substitution from V [?]}) (can be used as a chromatic passage between diatonic chords separated by a tone {eg.: IV-V, I-ii, V-vi}) (can be used to distort a tonic chord) (can alternate with the tonic chord when constructed upon the very tonic) (morphologically speaking, there are only three groups of it, and any note of each could be a tonic) [?];
- V/V (five of five) (V7) chords and (other) secondary dominants chords (which can be used to arrive at any diatonic chord other than the tonic) (its tritone, inverted, occurs in a diminished chord of the 2nd degree, which can lead equally to a 1st degree, substituting it); 
- augmented 5th chords: can be used, for instance, to substitute a V7, can be used on the tonic to go to the 6th degree (the risen 5th working as a leading tone), to the 4th degree (in second inversion) and to the 2nd degree; 
- tritone substitution (tritone: "three tones", augmented 4th, diminished 5th, half-octave) (tritones appear usually at V7 chords {between the 3rd and the 7th}, which can thus be substituted for a chord having the same tritone below or above it, such as 2nd dim {and 7th dim, only?}); 
- modulation: use of a pivot (diatonic common or chromatic chord {in relation to one or both keys}) (depends on establishing the keys {I/i, ii/iv, V/vii, I/i}); very common ones are the ones going from the tonic to the dominant, or from the minor to the relative major (?); a moving from major to minor or vice-versa, when the tonic remains the same, is not called a modulation (exactly because the tonic remains the same); 

- "standard" length of musical melody: 8 bars (1 period, 2 phrases/question & answer, antecedent & consequent) (made of steps & leaps; motives {small rhythmic unities} & themes; repetition & contrast {& variation}) (has a framework, such as I-V: V-I); 
- classical cadences (occur normally each four measures, the average size of a phrase, rhythm slows down): authentic perfect (V-I, both chords in root position, soprano 7-1 or 2-1), authentic imperfect (V-I) (vii-I), plagal (IV-I), half-cadence (?-V) (phrygian, iv in 1st inversiont to V) (augmented 6th chords, Neapolitan ?),  deceptive (V-vi, V-VI {?});

- polyrhythm (inside a single bar, common pulse not explicit), polymetry, hemiola (originaly expressed the 3:2 or 2:3 relation, thought of horizontally); 
- kommakol; 
- samba, bossa nova (2/4), jazz (4/4 but the pulse is ternary) (?), syncopes; 

- cycle of 5ths: F, C, G, D, A, E, B... 
- aligning these 5ths as white notes in a keybord: F, G, A, B, C, D, E;  
- relation to modes: Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian (natural minor), Locrian, Ionian (major), Dorian, Frygian (there are also other modes, such as melodic and harmonic minor); 
- bepop (jazz) scale: one extra tone (which enables, while using the scale, the tones of the main chords to fall in strong beats) (create textures with block chords {normally the tonic chord with a 6th degree note [could be thought of as the relative minor] inter-layered with a 7th diminished chords [ii and vii, sometimes seem to be called V9 (extended) chords without the root (?)]}); 

See also:
- view from Berthe Trepát's apartment;
- liste des déclencheurs musicaux;
- (Electronic & Others) High or Middle Culture?
- Call me Helium;
- Godard's Sympathy for the Devil;
- Darkwaves beyond the 80's;
Piano Playing (Kochevitsky);
- Concretos &/ou Brazilian Inteligentsia;

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